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ZONA.

1225

ZOPHORUS.

fastened to the girdle ; and still more frequently the fold of the tunic, formed by tucking it up, and called sinus, was used as a pocket to carry whatever was necessary.

As the girdle was worn to hold up the gar­ments for the sake of business or of work requiring despatch, so it was loosened and the tunic was allowed to fall down to the feet to indicate the opposite condition, and more especially in preparing to perform a sacrifice (veste recincta, Virg. Aen. iv. 518; Ovid, Met. vii. 182), or funeral rites (discincti, Sueton. Aug. 100; incinctae, Tibull. iii. 2. 18).

A girdle was worn by young women, even when their tunic was not girt up, and removed on the day of marriage, and therefore called cum] TrapOe-vwi). (Jacobs, Antliol. ii. p. 873 ; irapQzvov pirpriv, Brunck, .Anal. iii. 299; Sen. Oed. ii. 3. 17; Horn. Od. v. 231 ; Longus, i. 2 ; Ovid. Epist. Her. ii. 116, ix. 66, Festus, s. v. Oingulum ; Catull. ii. 13, Ixiv. 28.) The Flora in the museum at Naples

(see the annexed woodcut) shows the appearance of the girdle as worn by young women.

A horse's girth, used to fasten on the saddle [ephippium], was called by the same names, and was sometimes made of rich materials, and em­ broidered in the most elaborate manner. (Ovid, Rent. Am. 236 ; Claud. Epig. 34, 36.) These terms, zona and tingulum, were also used to sig­ nify the five zones as understood by geographers and astronomers. (Virg. Georg. i. 233; Plin. H.N* ii. 68 ; Macrob, Som. Scip. ii.) [J. Y.]

ZOPHORUS (&$6pos or 5ia<>/*a), the frieze of an entablature. (See columna, p. 324, a, and the woodcuts.) [P. S.]

TABLES OF GREEK AND ROMAN MEASURES, WEIGHTS, AND MONEY.

table

I. Greek Measures of Length.

(1) Smaller Measures. II. Roman Measures of Length.

(1) Smaller Measures.

III. Greek Measures of Length.

(2) Land and Itinerary.

IV. Roman Measures of Length. (2) Land and Itinerary. V. Greek Measures of Surface. VI. Roman Measures of Surface.

VII. Greek Measures of Capacity. (1) Liquid Measures.

VIII. Roman Measures of Capacity.

(1) Liquid Measures. IX. Greek Measures of Capacity.

(2) Dry Measures. X. Roman Measures of Capacity.

(2) Dry Measures. XL Greek Weights.

XII. Greek Money.

XIII. Roman Weights.

(1) The As and its Uncial Divisions.

XIV. Roman Weights.

(2) Subdivisions of the Uncia.

XV. Roman Money. (1) Before Augustus.

XVI,. Rorn«n Honey. (2) After Augustus.

In the construction of these Tables, the same authorities have been used as those referred to in the articles in the body of the work. Particu­lar acknowledgment is due of the assistance which has been derived from the Tables of Hussey and Wurm. The last two Tables (of Greek and Roman money) have been taken without alteration from Mr. Hussey's, because they were thought incapable of improvement, except one addition in the Table of Attic money. All the calculations, however, have been made de novo, even where the results are the same as in Mr. Hussey's Tables.

The Tables are so arranged as to exhibit the corresponding Greek and Roman measures in direct comparison with each other. In some of the Tables the values are given, not only in our several mea­ sures, but also in decimals of a primary unit, for the purpose of facilitating calculations. In others^ approximate values are given, that is, values which differ from the true ones by some small fraction^ and which, from their simplicity, will perhaps be found far more useful for ordinary purposes than the precise quantities, while the error, in each case, can easily be corrected. Fuller information will be found under mensura, nummus, pondera, and the specific names. [P. S.]

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