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On this page: Xystarchus – Xystus – Zacori – Zeugitae – Zona



look from the measures to the weights, for both systems were undoubtedly founded on weight. The Roman amphora or quadrantal contained 80 pounds (whether of wine or water does not matter here), and the congius 10 pounds. Also the Attic talent was reckoned equal to 80 Roman pounds, and contained 60 minae. Therefore the Attic mina had to the Roman pound the ratio of 80 : 60 or 4 : 3.

Now if we look at the subject historically, we find all the principal features of the Roman system in existence as early as the time of Servius Tullius. We must therefore seek for the introduction of the Greek element "before that time. At that early period Athens does not appear to have had any considerable commercial intercourse with Italy, but other Grecian states had, through the colonies of Magna Graecia. The Phocaeans at a very early period had a traffic with the Tyrrhenians, the Aeginetans had a colony in Umbria, and Corinth and her colonies were in intercourse with the people of Central Italy, besides the traces of Corin­thian influence upon Rome, which are preserved in the legend of the Tarquinii. It is therefore to the Aeginetico-Corinthian system of weights and mea­sures that we must look for the origin of Grecian influence on the Roman system. Now the half of the Aeginetan mina had to the Roman pound the ratio of 10 : 9 ; and since the Aeginetan mina was to the Attic as 5 : 3, we get from the comparison of these ratios the Attic mina to the Roman pound as 4 : 3, as above.

(Bockh, Metrologisclie Untersuclmngen, xi. § 10.) [P. S.]

XYSTARCHUS. [gymnasium, p. 581, b.]

XYSTUS. [gymnasium, p. 580, b.; hor-



ZACORI (&Kopoi). [aeditui.] ZETE'TAE (^ttjtcu) Inquisitors., were extra­ordinary officers, appointed by the Athenians to discover the authors of some crime against the state, and bring them to justice. Public advocates, <rvviiyopoi or Kar^yopoi, were sometimes directed to assist them in this duty. Frequently the court of Areopagus performed the office of inquisitors for the state, and indeed it was the duty of every ma­gistrate to assist in procuring information against offenders. (Andoc. de Myst. 3, 5, 6 ; Dinarch. c. Demosth. pp. 90, 97, ed. Steph.) Zrjr^rai were more frequently appointed to search for confiscated pro­perty, the goods of condemned criminals and state debtors ; to receive and give information against any persons who concealed, or assisted in conceal­ing them, and to deliver an inventory of all such goods (a.7roypd(f)eiv) to the proper authorities. The delinquent was then prosecuted, either before the criWi/cot, or it might be before the &Tr)rai them­selves, if their commission extended to the holding of an Tiy^ovia dtKaa-rrjpiov. Any person, how­ever, who thought himself entitled to the goods, which were the subject of such information, or to any part of them, might prefer a complaint against the inquisitor or informer, and petition to have the goods or the part to which he was entitled, or their proceeds, restored to him. This proceeding was called eVeTriV/c^yua. [syndici ; paracata-bole.] Inquisitors were also called Ma<rrr)pes.


On one particular occasion a set of commissioners called crv\\oyeis, were appointed, to discover the property of the oligarchs, who were concerned in overturning the democracy. (Harpocr. s. v. z^tt?- ttjs : Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, p. 158, 2d ed. ; Meier, Att. Proc. pp. 110, 112, 566.) See also the speeches of Lysias de Publ. Bon. and de Aristoph. Bon. [C. R. K.]

ZEUGITAE ((evyircu), [CENSUS.]

ZONA, dim. ZO'NULA, also called CI'NGU-LUM (Ccoz/77, Cw/xa, Cwo'T^/?5 Herod, i. 215, iv. 9 ; fAirpa)9 a girdle or zone, worn about the loins by both sexes. As in the case of some other arti­cles of dress, the distinction between the male and female girdle was denoted by the use of a diminu­tive, ($vi\ or £w(TT7jp being more properly a man's, £6viov a woman's girdle. (Moeris Att. s..v.) The finer kinds of girdles were made by netting, whence the manufacturer of them was called favio-tt^kos. (Th. Magister, p. 413, ed. Oudendorp ; Zonarius^}

The chief use of this article of dress was to hold up the tunic (favvvvQai, Callim. Dian. 12), which was more especially requisite to be done when persons were at work, on a journey, or en­gaged in hunting. Hence we see the loins girded in the woodcuts of the boatman at p. 512, of the shipbuilders at pp. 98, 141, of the goat-herd at p. 886, of the hunters at p. 989, and of Diana at p. 276. The &vri or faffrrip is also represented in many anjcient statues and pictures of men in armour as worn round the cuirass. Among the Romans the Magister Equitum wore a girdle of red leather, embroidered with needlework, and having its two extremities joined by a very splendid and elaborate gold buckle. [fibula.] (Lydus, de Mag. ii. 13.) The girdle, mentioned by Homer (//. iv. 135, v. 539, x. 77, xi. 236), seems to have been a con­stituent part of the cuirass, serving to fasten it by means of a buckle, and also affording an additional protection to the body, and having a short kind of petticoat attached to it, as is shown in the figure of the Greek warrior in p. 712. In consequence of the use of the girdle in fastening on the armour, tyvvvffQcu or £<affa<rQcu meant to arm one's-self (Horn. //. xi. 15), and from this circumstance Athene was worshipped under the character Zcw-o-T7)pia. (Paus. ix. 17. §2.) The woodcuts at pp. 712, 854 show that the ancient cuirass did not descend low enough to secure that part of the body, which was covered by the ornamental kilt or petticoat. To supply this defect was the de­sign of the mitra (/MTpa), a brazen belt lined pro­bably on the inside with leather and stuffed with wool, which was worn next to the body (Horn, II. iv. 137, 187, v. 707, 857 ; Schol. in II. iv. 187), so as to cover the lower part of the abdo­men. The annexed woodcut shows the outside and inside of the bronze plate of a mitra, one foot long, which was obtained by Brondsted (Bronzes ofSiris, p. 42) in the island of Euboea, and is now preserved in the Royal Library at Paris. We observe at one end two holes for fast­ening the strap which went behind the body, and at the other end a hook fitted probably to a ring, which was attached to the strap. A portion of a similar bronze plate is engraved by Caylus (Rec. (TAnt. v. pi. 96. fig. 1).

Men used their girdles to hold money instead of a purse. (Plant. Merc. v. 2. 84 ; Gellius, xv 12; Sueton. Vitell. 16.) The wallet [pera] was

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