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hour. [As, sub fin.'] Respecting the undo, as a coin see As, p. 141, a.
(Bockh, Metroloq. Untersucli. pp. 155,160, 165, 293 ; Wurm, de Pond, &c. pp. 8, 9, 63, 67, 118, 138.) [P.S.]
UNCTORES. [balneae, p. 190, b.]
UNCTUARIUM. [balneae, p. 190, b.]
UNGUENTA, ointments, oils, or salves. The application of Unguenta in connection with bath ing and the athletic contests of the ancients is stated under balneae, athletae, &c. But although their original object was simply to pre serve the health and elasticity of the human frame, they were in later times used as articles of luxury. They were then not only employed to impart to 'the body or hair a particular colour, but also to give to them the most beautiful fragrance possible ; they were, moreover, not merely applied after a bath, but at any time, to render one's appearance or presence more pleasant than usual. In short they were used then as oils and pomatums are at present. The numerous kinds of oils, soaps, pomatums, and other perfumes with which the ancients were acquainted, are quite astonishing. We know several kinds of soap which they used, though, as it ap pears, more for the purpose of painting the hair than for cleaning it. (Plin. H.N. xviii. 12, 51 ; Mart. viii. 23. 20, xiv. 26, 27.) For the same purpose they also used certain herbs. (Ovid. Ar. Ainat. iii. 163, Amor. i. 14.)
Among the various and costly oils which were partly used for the skin and partly for the hair, the following may be mentioned as examples : mende-sium, megalesium, metopium, amaracinmn, Cypri-num, susinum, nardinum, spicatum, iasminum, rosaceum, and crocus-oil, which was considered the most costly. (Becker, Gallus, ii. p. 27.) In addition to these oils the ancients also used various kinds of powder as perfumes, which by a general name are called Diapasmata. To what extent the luxury of using fragrant oils and the like was carried on, maybe inferred from Seneca (Epist. 86), who says that people anointed themselves twice or even three times a day, in order that the delicious fragrance might never diminish. At Rome, however, these luxuries did not become very general till towards the end of the republic (Gell. vii. 12), while the Greeks appear to have been familiar with them from early times. The wealthy Greeks and Romans carried their ointments and perfumes with them, especially when they bathed, in small boxes of costly materials and beautiful workmanship, which were called Narthecia. (Bottiger, Sabina^ \. p. 52.) The traffic which was carried on in these ointments and perfumes in several towns of Greece and southern Italy was very considerable. The persons engaged in manufacturing them were called by the Romans Unguentarii (Cic. de Off. i. 12 ; Horat, Sat. ii. 3. 228), or as they frequently were women, Unguentariae (Plin. H. N. viii. 5), and the art of manufacturing them Unguentaria. In the wealthy and effeminate city of Capua there was one great street called the Seplasia, which consisted entirely of shops in which ointments and perfumes were sold.
A few words are necessary on the custom of the ancients in painting their faces. In Greece this practice appears to have been very common among the ladies, though men also had sometimes recourse to.it, as for example, Demetrius Phalereus.
(Athen. xii. p. 642.) But as regards the women, it appears that their retired mode of living, and their sitting mostly in their own apartments, deprived them of a great part of their natural freshness and beauty, for which, of course, they were anxious to make up by artificial means. (Xenoph. Oecon. 10. § 10 ; Stobaeus, iii. p. 87, ed. Gaisford ; compare Becker, Charicles, ii. p. 232.) This mode of embellishing themselves was probably applied only on certain occasions, such as when they went out, or wished to appear more charming. (Lysias, de caecl. EratostJi. p. 15 ; Aristoph. Lysistr. 149, Eccles. 878, Pint. 1064 ; Pint. Alcib. 39.) The colours used for this purpose were white (fyi/uLvOiov (cerusa) and red (eyx°V(Ta or &7XOV(ra9 TrcaSepcos-, ffvKa.iJi.ivoV) or <j>vkos, Xenoph. Oecon. 10. § 2 ; Aristoph. Lysistr. 48, Eccles. 929 ; Alexis, ap. Athen. xiii. p. 568, compare 557 ; Etymol. Mag. s. v. 'E^tju/xufliwcrflcu). The eyebrows were frequently painted black (jue'Acu', &cr§oAos,or crn/x/x/s1, Alexis, ap. AtJten. xiii. p. 568 ; Pollux, v. 101). The manner in which this operation of painting was performed, is still seen in some ancient works of art representing ladies in the act of painting themselves. Sometimes they are seen painting themselves with a brush and sometimes with their fingers. (Bottiger, Sabina^ ii. tab. ix. and i. tab. vi.) The Romans, towards the end of the republic and under the empire, were no less fond of painting themselves than the Greeks. (Horat. EpoHt. xii.
1 0 ; Ovid. Ar. Am. iii. 199 ; Plin. //. N. xxviii. 8.) The red colour was at Rome, as in many parts of Greece, prepared from a kind of moss which the Romans called fucus (the rocella of Linnaeus), and from which afterwards all kinds of paint were called fucus. Another general term for paint is creta. For embellishing and cleaning the complexion the Greeks as well as the Romans used a substance called oesipum (see the comment, on Suidas, s. v. OftrTn;), which was prepared of the wool taken from those parts of the body of a sheep in which it perspired most. Another remedy often applied for similar purposes consisted of powdered excrementa of the Egyptian crocodiles. (Horat. and Plin. I. c.)
Respecting the subjects here mentioned and everything connected with the toilet of the ancients, see Bottiger, Sabina oder Morgenscenen im Putzzimmer einer reiclten Komerin. Leipz. 1806.
2 vols. [L. S.J UNGUENTA'RII. [unguenta.]
UNIVERSITAS. The philosophical division of things (Res) in the widest sense of the term, is into things Corporeal (Res Corporales), objects of sense, and things Incorporeal (Res Incorporales), objects of intellect only (Cic. Top. 5.) ; and this division was applied by the Roman Jurists to things as the objects of Rights. When a man said of a thing " meum est," it might be either a Corporeal thing, as a piece of land or an animal ; or it might be an Incorpoieal thing, as a Jus utendi fruendi. Obligationes were also classed among Incorporeal things. But this is not a division of things, in the limited sense, for things in that sense are always corporeal ; it is a division of things in the wider sense.
In a thing corporeal we may consider that there are parts, in reference to which the whole is a Uni-versitas or a unit. If then the division intoj>arts is made with reference to the subjection of a part to a person's will,-the .part is viewed as a whole,'