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angles to the direction of the fibres, each of these sections would upon both sides represent the de­sign which would be multiplied to an extent in proportion to the total length of the glass threads. Two beautiful fragments evidently constructed in this way are accurately commented upon by Winckelmann (i. c. 2. § 22, 23, 24), and another recently brought from Egypt is shown on the fron­tispiece to the third volume of Wilkinson's work. Many mosaic pavements and pictures (opm mu-sivum) belong to this head, since the cubes were frequently composed of opaque glass as well as marble, but these have been already discussed in p. .915 of this work.

5. Thick sheets of glass of various colours appear to have been laid down for paving floors, and to have been attached as a lining to the walls and ceilings of apartments in dwelling houses, just as scagliuola is frequently employed in Italy, and oc­casionally in our own country also. Rooms fitted up in this way were called vitreae camerae, and the panels vitreae quadraturae. Such was the kind of decoration introduced by Scaurus for the scene of his theatre, not columns nor pillars of glass as some, nor bas-reliefs as others have imagined. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 64 ; Stat. Syl. i. 5. 42 ; Senec. Ep. 76; Vopisc. Firm. c. 3; Winckelmann, i. c. 2. § 21; Passeri, Lucernae Fictiles^ p. 67. tab. Ixxi.)

6. The question whether glass windows were known to the ancients has, after much discussion, been set at rest by the excavations at Pompeii, for not only have many fragments of flat glass been disinterred from time to time, but in the tepidarium of the public baths a bronze lattice came to light with some of the panes still inserted in the frame, so as to determine at once not only their existence, but the mode in which they were secured and ar­ranged. . (Mazois, Palais de Scaurus^ c. viii. p. 97 ; Ruines de Pompei, vol. iii. p. 77 ; Becker, Gallits, vol. ii. p. 20.) [domus, p. 432.]

7. From the time that pure glass became known, it must have been remarked that when darkened \ipon one side, it possessed the property of reflect­ing images. We are certain that an attempt was made by the Sidonians to make looking-glasses (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 66), and equally certain that it must have failed, for the use of metallic mirrors, which are more costly in the first instance, which require constant care, and attain but imperfectly the end desired, was universal under the Empire. Respecting ancient mirrors, see speculum.

8. A strange story with regard to an alleged in­ vention of malleable glass is found in Petronius (c. 51), is told still more circumstantially by Dion Cassius (Ivii. 21), and is alluded to by Pliny (//. N. xxxvi. 66), with an expression of doubt, however, as to its truth. An artist appeared before Tiberius with a cup of glass. This he dashed violently upon the ground. When taken up it was neither broken nor cracked, but dinted like a piece of metal. The man then produced a mallet, and ham­ mered it back into its original shape. The emperor inquired whether any one was acquainted with the secret, and was answered in the negative, upon which the order was given that he should be in­ stantly beheaded, lest the precious metals might lose their value, should such a composition become generally known. [W. R.]

VITTA, or plaral VITTAE, a ribbon or fil'let, is to be considered, I. As an ordinary portion of


female dress. II. As a decoration of sacred per­sons and sacred things.

1. When considered as an ordinary portion of female dress, it was simply a band encircling the head, and serving to confine the tresses (cnnales vittae) the ends, when long (longae taenia vittae), hanging down behind. (Virg. Aen. vii. 351, 403 ; Ovid. Met. ii. 413, iv. 6; Isidor. xix. 31. § 6.) It was worn (1.) by maidens (Virg. Aen. ii. 168 ; Prop. iv. 11. 34; Val. Flacc. viii. 6; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. ii. 133); (2.) by married women also, the vitta assumed on the nuptial day being of a different form from that used by virgins. (Prop. iv. 3. 15, iv. J1. 34 ; Plant. Mil. Gl. iii. 1. 194 ; Val. Max. v. 2. § 1.)

The Vitta was not worn by libertinae even of fair character (Tibull. i. 6. 67), much less by me-retrices; hence it was looked upon as an insigne pudoris, and, together with the stola and instita, served to point out at first sight the freeborn ma­tron. (Ovid. A. A. i. 31, R. A. 386, Trist. ii. 247, Ep. eos Pont. iii. 3. 51.)

The colour was probably a matter of choice, white and purple are both mentioned. (Ovid. Met. ii. 413, Cirts, 511; Stat. AMI. i. Gil.) One of those represented in the cuts below is orna­mented with embroidery, and they were in some cases set with pearls (vit'tae margaritarum. Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 25. § 2).

The following woodcuts represent back and front views of the heads of statues from Herculaneum, on which we perceive the vitta. (Bronzi d'Erco-itmo, vol. ii. tav. 72, 75.)

II. When employed for sacred purposes, it was usually twisted round the infula [!npula], and held together the loose flocks of wool. (Virg. Georg. iii. 487, Aen. x. 537; Isidor. xix. 30. § 4 ; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. x. 538 ; the expression of Lucan v. 142, &c. is obscure.) Under this form it was em­ployed as an ornament for (1.) Priests, and those who offered sacrifice. (Virg. Aen. ii. 221, vi. 637, x. 537 ; Tacit. Ann. i. ,57.) (2.) Priestesses, espe­cially those of Vesta, and hence vittata sacerdos for a Vestal, /car' el^7?^ Vir. Aen. vii. 418

Ovid. Fast. iii. 30, vi.- 457 ; Juv. iv. 9, vi. 50.) (3.) Prophets and poets, who may be regarded as priests, and in this case the Vittae were frequently intertwined with chaplets of olive or laurel. (Virg. Aen. iii. 81, vi. 665 ; Stat. Silv. ii. 1. 26, Ach-ill. i. 11, Theb. iii. 466). (4.) Statues of deities. (Virg. A en. ii. 168, 296; Juv. vi. 50; compare Stat. Silv. iii. 3. 3.) (5.) Victims decked for sa­crifice. (Virg. Georg. iii. 487, Aen. ii. 133, 156, v. 366 ; Ovid. Ep. ex Pont. iii. 2. 74, Stat. A chill. ii. 301.) (6.) Altars. (Virg. Eel. viii. 64, Aen. iii. 64.) (7.) Temples. (Prop. iv. 9. 27 ; compare Tacit. Hist. iv. 53.) (8.) The licer-iipta of suppli­ants. (Virg. Aen. vii. 237j viii. 1 28.)

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