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Pollux, vi. foil. ; Athenaeus, lib. i. and lib. x. ; besides which there are a multitude of passages in other parts of the above authors, in Cato, Varro, and in the classics generally, which bear more or less upon these topics.
Of modern writers we may notice particularly, Prosper Rendella, Tractatus de Vinea, Vindemia et Vino, Venet. 1629 ; Galeatius Landrinus, Quaestio de Mixtione Vim et Aquae, Ferrar. 1593 ; Ah- dreas Baccius, de Naturali Vinorum Plistoria, <£c., Rom. 1596, de Conviviis Antiquorum, &c., Gronov. Thes. Grace. Antiq. ; Sir Edward Barry, Observa tions on the Wines of the Ancients, Loud. 1775 ; Henderson, History of Ancient and modern Wines, Lond. 1824. Some of the most important facts are presented in a condensed form in Becker's Gallus, vol. ii. pp. 163—176, and pp. 238—241, and Charildes, vol. i. p. 456, foil. [W. R.J
VIOCURI. [QUATUORVIRI VlALES.]
VIRGA, dim. VIRGULA (£cte$os), a rod or wand. This was in many cases the emblem of a certain rank or office ; being carried, for example, by the Salii, by a judge or civil officer (see wood cut, p. 98), a herald [caduceus] (Non. Marc. p. 528 ; Ovid. Met. i. 716), and by the Tridiniarclia [triclinium], or any other person who had to exercise authority over slaves. (Senec. Epist. 47.) The use of the rod (pa£§i'£efy, Acts, xvi. 22) in the punishment of Roman citizens was abolished by the Lex Porcia (p. 696, a). In the fasces a number of rods were bound together. , The wand was also the common instrument of ..magical display, as in the hand of Circe (Horn. Od. x. 238, 293, 318, 389), and of Minerva (xvi. 172). To do any thing virgula divina was to do it by magic. (Cic. Att. i. 44.) The stripes of cloth were called virgae. (Ovid. Ar. Am. iii. 269.) [pal lium ; tela,] [J. lr.]
VIRGINES VESTALES. [vestalbs Vm-
VIS. Leges were passed at Rome for the purpose of preventing acts of violence. The Lex Plotia or Plautia was enacted against those who occupied public places and carried arms (Cic. ad Att. ii. 24, de Harusp. Respons. 8 ; the Dissertation of Waechter, Neues Arcldv. des Criminalrechts, vol. xiii. reprinted in Orellii Onomasticon). The Lex proposed by the consul Q. Catulus on this subject, with the assistance of Plautius the tribunus, appears to be the Lex Plotia. (Cic. pro Cod. 29 ; Sallust. in Oic. Declam.) There was a Lex Julia of the dictator Caesar on this subject, which imposed the penalty of aquae et ignis interdictio. (Cic. Philip, i. 9.) Two Juliae Leges were passed as to this matter in the time of Augustus, which were respectively entitled De Vi Publica, and ds Vi Privata. (Dig. 48. tit. 6, 7.) The Lex de Vi Publica did not apply, as the title might seem to import, exclusi vely to acts againts the public peace, and it is not possible to describe it very accurately except by enumerating its chief provisions. The collecting of arms (arma, tela) in a house (domus), or in a villa (agrove in villa}, except for the purpose of hunting, or going a journey or a voyage, was in itself a violation of the Lex. The signification of the word tela in this Lex was very extensive. The punishment for the violation of this Lex was aquae et ignis interdictio, except in the case of attacking and plundering houses or villas with an armed band, in which case the punishment
was death ; and the penalty was the same for carry ing off a woman, married or unmarried. The cases enumerated in the Digest, as falling within the penalties of the Lex Julia de Vi Privata,, are cases where the act was of less atrocity ; for instance, if a man got a number of men together for a riot, which ended in the beating of a person, but net in his death, he came within the penalties of the Lex de Vi Privata. It was also a case of Vis Privata, when persons combined to prevent another being brought before the praetor. The Senatus- consultum Volusianum extended the penalties of the Lex to those who maintained another in his suit, with the view of sharing any advantage that might result from it. The penalties of this Lex were the loss of a third part of the offender's pro perty ; and he was also declared to be incapable of being a Senator or Decurio, or a Judex: by a Se«. natusconsultum, the name of which is not given, he was incapacitated from enjoying any honour, quasi infamis. (This matter is discussed at length by Rein, Das Criminalrecht der K6mei\ p. 732.) [G. L.J
VIS et VIS ARMATA. There was an inter* diet De Vi et Vi Armata, which applied to the case of a man who was forcibly ejected from the possession of a piece of ground or edifice (qui vi de- jectus est}. The object of the interdict was to restore the party ejected to possession. (Dig. 43. tit. 16 ; inter dictum.) [G. L.]
VISCEBATIO. [funus, p. 562, a,]
VITELLIANL [tabulae, p. 1092,a.]
VITIS. [exercitus, p. 504, b.]
VITRUM (i/aAos1), glass. A singular amount of ignorance and scepticism long prevailed with regard to the knowledge possessed by the ancients in the art of glass-making. Some asserted that it was to be regarded as exclusively a modern inven tion, while others, unable altogether to resist the mass of evidence to the contrary, contented them selves with believing that the substance was known only in its coarsest and rudest form. It is now clearly demonstrated to have been in common use at a very remote epoch. Various specimens still in existence prove that the manufacture had in some branches reached a point of perfection to which recent skill has not yet been able to attain ; and although we may not feel disposed to go so far as Winckelmann (i. c. 2. § 20), who contends that it was used more generally and for a greater variety of purposes in the old world than among ourselves, yet when we examine the numerous collections arranged in all great public museums, we must feel convinced that it was employed as an ordinary material for all manner of domestic utensils by the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans.
We find the process of glass-blowing distinctly represented in the paintings of Beni Hassan, which if any faith can be reposed in the interpretation of hieroglyphics according to the phonetic system, were executed during the reigns of Osirtasen the First, the contemporary of Joseph, and his immediate successors, while a glass bead has been found at Thebes bearing the name of a monarch who lived 3300 years ago, about the time of the Jewish Exodus. Vases also, wine-bottles, drinking-cups, bugles, and a multitude of other objects have been discovered in sepulchres and attached to mummies both in Upper and Lower Egypt, and although in most cases no precise date can be affixed to these relics, many of them are referred by the most com-