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could be carried by the soldiers ; sometimes, how­ ever, when the purpose which it was to serve re­ quired great strength, it was heavy and then the whole fabric probably was moved by wheels at­ tached to the posts. The roof was formed of planks and wicker-work, and the uppermost layer or layers consisted of raw hides or wet cloth as a protection against fire, by which the besieged frequently de­ stroyed the vineae. (Liv. ii. 17, v. 7, xxi. 61.) The sides of a vinea were likewise protected by wicker-work. Such machines were constructed in a safe place at some distance from the besieged town, and then carried or wheeled (agere) close to its walls. Here several of them were frequently joined together, so that a great number of soldiers might be employed under them. When vineae had taken their place close to the walls the sol­ diers began their operations, either by undermining the walls, and thus opening a breach, or by em­ ploying the battering-ram (aries, Liv. xxi. 7, 8). In the time of Vegetius the soldiers used to call these machines causiae. (J. Lipsius, Poliorcet. i. dial. 7.) [L. S.]

VINUM (olvos). The general term for the fermented juice of the grape.

The native country of the vine was long a vex-ata quaestio among botanists, but, although many points still remain open for debate, it seems now to be generally acknowledged that it is indigenous throughout the whole of that vast tract which stretches southward from the woody mountains of Mazanderan on the Caspian to the shores of the Persian Gulf and the Indian sea, and eastward through Khorasan and Cabul to the base of the Himalaya, — the region to which history and phi­lology alike point as the cradle of the human race. Hence, when we consider the extreme facility of the process in its most simple form, we need little wonder that the art of making wine should have been discovered at a very remote epoch.

In the earliest of profane writers the cultivation of the grape is represented as familiar to the Heroic Greeks, some of his most beautiful and vivid pic­tures of rural life being closely connected with the toils of the vineyard. It is worth remarking that the only wine upon whose excellence Homer dilates in a tone approaching to hyperbole is represented as having been produced on the coast of Thrace, the region from which poetry and civilization spread into Hellas, and the scene of several of the more remarkable exploits of Bacchus. Hence we might infer that the Pelasgians introduced the culture of the vine when they wandered westward across the Hellespont, and that in like manner it was con­veyed to the valley of the Po, when at a subse­quent period they made their way round the head of the Adriatic. It seems certain from the various legends that wine was both rare and cosily in the earlier ages of Italian and Roman history. Thus, a tradition preserved by Varro (ap. I'tin. 11. N. xiv. 14) told that when Mezentius agreed to aid the Rutilians he stipulated that the produce of the Latian vineyards should be his recompense. Ro­mulus is said to have used milk only in his offer­ings to the gods (Plin. L c.) : Numa, to check ex­travagance, prohibited the sprinkling of wine upon the funeral pyre, and, to stimulate the energies of the rustic population, he ordained that it should be held impious to offer a libation to the gods of wine which had flowed from an unpruned stock. So scarce was it at a much later period



that Papirius the dictator, when about to join in battle with the Samnites, vowed to Jupiter a small cupful (vini pocillum) if he should gain the victory.. That wine wan racked off into amphorae and stored up in regular cellars as early as the era of the Gracchi Pliny considers proved by the existence in his own day of the Vinum Opimiamim, described hereafter. But even then no specific ap­pellation was given to the produce of different lo­calities, and the jar was marked with the name of the consul alone. For many years after this foreign wines were considered far superior to native growths, and so precious were the Greek vintages esteemed, in the times of Marius and Sulla that a single draught only was offered to the guests at a ban­quet. The rapidity with which luxury spread in this matter is well illustrated by. the saying of M. VaiTOT that Lucullus when a boy never saw an entertainment in his father's house, however splen­did, at which Greek wine was handed round more than once, but when in manhood he returned from his Asiatic conquests he bestowed on the people a largess of more than a hundred thousand cadi. Four different kinds of wine are said to have been presented for the first time at the feast given by Julius Caesar in his third consulship (b.c. 46), these being Falernian, Chian, Lesbian, and Mamer-tine, and not until after this date were the merits of the numerous varieties, foreign and domestic, accurately known and fully appreciated. But during the reign of Augustus and his immediate successors the study of wines became a passion, and the most scrupulous care was bestowed upon every process connected with their production and pre­servation. (Plin. //. N. xiv. 2o.) Pliny calculates that the number of wines in the whole world de­serving to be accounted of high quality (iiobilia} amounted to eighty, of which his own. country could claim two-thirds (xiv. 13) ; and in another passage (xiv. 29) he asserts that 195 distinct kinds might be reckoned up, and that if all the varieties of these were to be included in the computation, the sum would be almost doubled. (Plin. PI. N. xiv. 6. 29.)

The process followed in wine-making was es­sentially the same among both the Greeks and the Romans. After the grapes had been gathered, they were first trodden with the feet and after­wards submitted to the action of the press. This part of the process of wine-making is described in the article torculum.

The sweet unfennented juice of the grape was. termed 7AeD/cos by the Greeks and inustum by the Romans, the latter word being properly an ad­ jective signifying new or fresh. Of this there were several kinds distinguished acccording to the man­ ner in which each was originally obtained and sub­ sequently treated. That which flowed from the clusters, in consequence merely of their pressure upon each other before any force was applied, was known as TrpoxvjJ.a (Geopon. vi. 16) or protropum (Plin. 1L N. xiv. 11), and was reserved for manu­ facturing a particular species of rich wine described by Pliny (/. c.) to which the inhabitants of Mytilene gave the name of TrpoSpOjUOs or irpoTpoiros. (Atheri. i. p. 30, b., ii. p. 45, e.) That which was obtained next, before the grapes had been fully trodden, was the inustum lixivium, and was considered best for keeping. (Geopon. vi. 16 ; Colum. xii. 41.) After the grapes had been fully trodden and pressed, the mass was taken out, the edges of the husks cut, ' ' 4 ii

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