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VIAE.

It issued from the Porta Flaminia and proceeded nearly north to Ocriculunt and Narnia in Unibria. PI ere a oranoh struck off, making a sweep to the east through Interamna and Spoletium, and fell again into the main trunk (which passed through Mevania) at Fulginia. It continued through Fa­num Fkiminii and Nuceria, where it again divided, one line running nearly straight to Fanum Fortunae on the Adriatic, while the other diverging to An-cona continued from thence along the coast to Fa­num Fortunae, where the two branches uniting passed on to Ariminum through Pisaurum. From thence the Via, Flaminia was extended under the name of the yia aemij.ia and traversed the heart of Cisalpine Gaul through Bononia,Mutina_, Parma, Plaeentia (where it crossed the Po) to Mediolanum. From this point branches were sent off through Bergomum, Biiada, Verona, Vicentia, Patavium and Aquileia to Tergeste on the east, and through No-varia, Vercelli, Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria to the Alpis Graia on the west, besides another branch in the same direction through Tieinum and fndustria to Augusta Taurinorum. Nor must we omit the via postumia, which struck from Verona right down across the Appenines to Genoa, passing through Mantua and Cremona, crossing the Po at Plaeentia and so through Iria, Dertona and Li-larna, sending off a branch from Dertona to Asia,

Of the roads striking out of the Via Flaminia in the immediate vicinity of Rome the most important is the via cassia, which diverging near the Pons Mulvius and passing not far from Veil traversed Etruria through Baecanae, Sutrium, Vulsinii, Clu-slum, Arretium, Florentia, Pistoria, and Luca, joining the Via Aurdia at Luna.

(a) The via amerina broke off from the Via Cassia near Baecanae^ and held north through Falerii, Tuder, and Perusia, re-uniting itself with th e Via Cassia at Clusium.

(/3) Not far from the Pons Mulvius the via clodia separated from the Via Cassia, and pro­ceeding to Sabate on the Lacus Sabatinus there divided into two, the principal branch passing through central Etruriato Rusellae and thence due north to Florentia, the other passing through Tar-quinii and then falling into the Via Aurelia.

(7) Beyond Baecanae the via cimina branched off, crossing the Mons Ciminus and rejoining the Via Cassia near Fanum Voltumnae.

IX. The via aurelia, the Great Coast Road, issued originally from the Porta Janiculensis and subsequently from the Porta Aurelia. It reached the coast at Alsium and followed the shore of the lower sea along Etruria and Liguria by Genoa as far as Forum Julii in Gaul. In the first instance it extended no farther than Pisa.

X. The via portuensis kept the right bank of the Tiber to Portus Augusti.

XI. The via ostiensis originally passed through the Porta Trigemina, afterwards through the Porta Ostiensis, and kept the left bank of the Tiber to Ostia. From thence it was continued under the name of via severiana along the coast southward through Laurentum, Antium, and Cir-caei, till it joined the Via Appia at Tarraeina. The via laurentina, leading direct to Lauren-turn, seems to have branched off from the Via Ostiensis at a short distance from Rome.

XII. Lastly, the via ardeatina from Rome to Ardea. According to some this branched off from the Via Appia.

11.95

VIATOR.

Alphabetical Table of the Viae described above.

•1. Via

2. „

3. ,,

4. „

5. „

6. „

7- „

8. „

9. „

10. „

11. „

12. „

13. „

H. „

15. „

16. „

17. „

18. „

19. „

Aemilia VIII. Appia I. Aquillia I. (4.) Amerina VIII. («.) Ardeatina XII. Aurelia IX. Cam pan a I. (3.) Cassia VIII. Cimina VIII. (y.) Clodia VIII. (fi.) Coliatina V. Consulares I. (3.) Domitiana I. (2.) Egnatia I. (5.) Ficulnensis VI. Flaminia VIII. Frentana Appula V. Gabina IV. Hadriana II.

20. Via Labicana HI.

21. „ Latina II.

22. „ Laurentina XL

23. „ Minucia I. (7.)

24. „ Nomentana VI.

25. „ Numicia I. (7.)

26. „ Ostiensis XI.

27. „ Portuensis X.

28. „ Postumia VIII.

29. „ Praenestina IV.

30. „ Salaria VII.

31. ,, Setina I. (1.)

32. „ Severiana XI.

33. „ Sublacensis V.

34. „ Tiburtina V.

35. „ Trt»jana I. (6.)

36. „ Tusculana II.'

37. „ Valeria V.

The most elaborate treatise upon Roman Roads is Bergier, Histoire des Grands Chemins de VEm-pire Eomain, published in 16'22. It is translated into Latin in the tenth volume of the Thesaurus of Graevius, and with the notes of Henninius occupies more than &00 folio pages. In the first part of the above article the essay of Nibby, Delle Vie degli Antichi dissertazione, appended to the fourth volume of the fourth Roman edition of Nardini, has been closely followed. Considerable caution, however, is necessary in using the works of this author, who although a profound local antiquary, is by no means an accurate scholar. To gain a knowledge of that portion of the subject so lightly touched upon at the close of the article, it is neces­sary to consult the various commentaries upon the Tabula Peutingeriana and the different ancient Itineraries, together with the geographical works of Collarius, Cluverius, and D'Anville. [W. R.]

VIATICUM (e<jt>o'Sioj>) is, properly speaking, every thing necessary for a person setting out on a journey, and thus comprehends money, provisions, dresses, vessels, &c. (Plaut. Epid, v. 1.9; Plin. Epist. vii. 12 ; Cic. de Senect. 18.) When a Roman magistrate, praetor, proconsul, or quaestor went to his province, the state provided him with all that was necessary for his journey. But as the state in this as in most other cases of expenditure preferred paying a sum at once to having any part in the actual business, the state engaged contractors (redempiores), who for a stipulated sum had to pro­ vide the magistrates with the viaticum, the principal parts of which appear to have been beasts of burden and tents (muli et tabernacula}. Julius Caesar in­ troduced some modification of this system, by his Lex De Repetundis [r.epetundae] ; and Augustus once for all fixed a certain sum to be given to the proconsuls (probably to other provincial magistrates also) on setting out to their provinces, so that the redemptores had no more to do with it. (Cic. ad Fain. xii. 3 ; Suet. Aug. 36 ; Gellius, xvii. 2, 13 ; comp. Sigonius, de Antiq. Jure Provinc. iii. 11 ; Casaubon ad Theophrast. 11.) [L. S.]

VIATOR was a servant who attended upon and executed the commands of certain Roman ma­gistrates, to whom he bore the same relation as the lictor did to other magistrates. The name viatores was derived from the circumstance of their being chiefly employed on messages either to call upon senators to attend the meeting of the senate, or to summon the people to the comitia, &c. (Cic. de Senect. 16.) In the earlier times of the republic we find viatores as ministers of such magistrates also as had their lictors: viatores of a dictator and of the consuls are mentioned by Livy (vi. 15, xxii,

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