The Ancient Library

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most important branches within the bounds of Italy, naming at the same time the principal towns through which they passed, so as to convey a gene­ral idea of their course. For all the details and controversies connected with their origin, gradual extensions, and changes, the various stations upon each, the distances, and similar topics, we must refer to the treatises enumerated at the close of this article, and to the researches of the local anti­quaries, the most important of whom, in so far as the southern districts are concerned, is Romanelli.

Beginning our circuit of the walls at the Porta Capena, the first in order, as in dignity, is,

I. The via appia, the Great South Road. It was commenced, as we have already stated, by Appius Claudius Caecus, when censor, and has always been the most celebrated of the Roman


"Ways. It was the first ever laid down upon a grand scale and upon scientific principles, the na­tural obstacles which it was necessary to overcome were of the most formidable nature, and when com­pleted it well deserved the title of Queen of Roads (reyina viarum^ Stat. Silv. ii. 2, 12). We know that it was in perfect repair when Procopius wrote (Bell. Goth. i. 14), long after the devastating in­roads of the northern barbarians ; and even to this dav the cuttings through hills and masses of solid

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rock, the filling up of hollows, the bridging of ra­vines, the substructions to lessen the rapidity of steep descents, and the embankments over swamps, demonstrate the vast sums and the prodigious la­bour that must have been lavished on its construc­tion. It issued from the Porta Capena, and pass­ing through Arieia, Tres Tabernae, Appii Forum ^ Tarracina, Fundi, Formiae, Minturnae, Sinuessa, and Cas'Unum, terminated at Capita^ but was even­tually extended through Calatia and Ca.ud.ium to Beneventum^ and finally from thence through Venu-sia, Tarentum, and Una, to Brundusium.

The ramifications of the Via Appia most worthy of notice, are.

(!.) The via setina, which connected it with Setia. Originally it would appear that the Via Appia passed through Velitrae and Setia^ avoiding the marshes altogether, and travellers, to escape this circuit, embarked upon the canal, which in the da}Ts of Horace traversed a portion of the swamps.

(2.) The via domitiana struck off at Sinuessa, and keeping close to the shore passed through Liternum, Cumae^ Puteoli, Neapolis, Herculaneum, Oplonti, Pompeii^ and Stabiae to Surrentnm* mak­ing the complete circuit of the bay of Naples.

(3.) The via campana or consularis from Capua to Cumae sending off a branch to Puteoli and another through Atella to Neapolis.

(4.) The via aquillia began at Capua and ran south through Nola and Nuceria to Salernum, from thence, after sending off a branch to Paestum, it took a wide sweep inland through Eburi and the region of the Mons Alburnus up the valley of the Tanager; it then struck south through the very heart of Lucania and Bruttium^ and passing Neru-him^ Interamnia and Cosentia^ returned to the sea at Vibo^ and thence through Medina to Raegium. This road sent oif a branch near the sources of the Tanager, which ran down to the sea at Blanda on the Laus Sinus and then continued along the whole line of the Bruttian coast through Laus and Terina to Vibo9 where it joined the main stem.

(5.) The via egnatia began at Beneoentum, struck north through the country of the Hirpini to


Equotuticum, entered Apulia at Aecae, and passing through Herdonia, Canusium, and Rubi,' reached the Adriatic at Barium and followed the coast through Egnatia to Brundusium. This was the route followed by Horace. It is doubtful whether it bore the name given above in the early part of its course.

(6.) The via trajana began at Venusia and ran in nearly a straight line across Lucania to Heradea on the Sinus Tarentinus^ thence following southwards the line of the east coast it passed through 77mm, Croto, and Scyllacium^ and com­pleted the circuit of Bruttium by meeting the Via Aqidllia at Rliegium.

(7.) A via minucia is mentioned by Cicero (ad Ait. ix. 6), and a via- numicia by Horace (Epist. i. 18. 20), both of which seem to have passed through Samnium from north to south, con­necting the Valerian and Aquillian and cutting the Appian and Latin ways. Their course is unknown. Some believe them to be one and the same.

Returning to Rome, we find issuing from the porta Capena, or a gate in its immediate vicinity

II. The via latina, another great line leading to Beneventum, but keeping a course farther inland than the Via Appia. Soon after leaving the city it sent off a short branch (ViA tusculana) to Tusculum, and passing through Compitum Anagni-num, Ferentinum, Frusino, Fregdlae, Fabrateria. Aquinum, Casinum, Venafrum, Teamtm, Allifae* and Telesia, joined the Via Appia at Beneventum.

A cross-road called the via hadriana, running from Minturnae through Suessa Aurunca to Tea-num, connected the Via Appia with the Via Latina.

III. From the Porta Esquilina issued the via labicana, which passing Lab i cum fell into the Via Latina at the station ad Bivium 30 miles from Rome.

IV. The via praenestina, originally the via gabina, issued from the same gate with the for­mer. Passing through Gabii and Praeneste, it joined the Via, Latina just below Anagnia.

V. Passing over the via collatina as of little importance, we find the via tiburtina, which issued from the Porta Tiburtina, and proceeding N. E. to Tibur^ a distance of about 20 miles, was continued from thence, in the same direction, under the name of the via valeria, and traversing the country of the Sabines passed through Carseoli and Corfinium to Aternum on the Adriatic, thence to Adria, and so along the coast to Castrum Truen-tinum, where it fell into the Via Solaria.

A branch of the Via Valeria led to Sublaqueum, and wns called via sublacensis. Another branch extended from Adria along the coast southwards through the country of Frentani to Larinum, being-called, as some purpose, via frentana appula.

VI. The via nomentana, anciently ficul-nensis, ran from the porta Collina^ crossed the Anio to Nomentum, and a little beyond fell into the Via Salaria at Eretum.

VII. The via salaria, also from the porta Collina (passing Fidenae and Crustumerium) ran north and east through Sabinum and Picenum to Reate and Asculum Picenum. At Castrum Truen-tinum it reached the coast, which it followed imtil it joined the Via Flaminia at Ancona.

VIII. Next comes the via flaminia, the Great North Road commenced in the censorship of C. Flamimus and carried ultimately to Ariminum.

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