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from these and other sources ; but our want of information renders it impossible. We have only the general statement that previously to the time of Pompey the annual revenue amounted to fifty millions of drachmas, and that it was increased by him to eighty-five millions. (Plut. Pomp. 45.) Respecting the sums contained at different times in the aerarium at Rome, see Pliny. H. N. xxxiii. 17.
(Burmann, de Vectig.Pop.Romani; Hegewisch, Versuck liber die Rom. Finanzen • Bosse, Grundzuge des Finanzivesens im Rom. Staat.; Bureau de la Malle,. Economie Politiqite des Romains, Paris, 2 vols. 8Vo.) [L. S.]
VEHES (o'x^/xa), a load of hay, manure, or anything which was usually conveyed in a cart. [plaustrum.] Pliny speaks of "a large load of hay" (vdiem foeni large onustam^ Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 15. s. 24), which shows that this term did not always denote a fixed quantity. With the Romans, however, as with us, the load was likewise used us a measure, a load of manure being equal to eighty modii, which was about twenty bushels. (Col. de Re Rust. ii. 15, 1 6', xi:. 2.) The trunk of a tree, when squared, was also reckoned a load, the length varying according to the kind of timber, viz. 20 feet of oak, 25 of fir, &c. (Col. I.e.) A load was also called carpentum. [J. Y.] VELA'RIUM. [velum.] VELA'TI was a name given to the Accensi in the Roman army, who were only supernumerary soldiers ready to supply any vacancies in the legion. [accensi.] They were called Velati, because they were only clothed (velati) with the saga, and were not regularly armed. (Festus, s. v. Velati, A dscripticii.)
VELITES. [exercitus, pp. 503, a, 506, b.] VELUM (auAaia, Theophrast. Char. 5 • Athen. v. p. 196, c ; Pollux, iv. 122 ; TrapaTrerao-^a, P]ato, Polit. p. 294, ed. Bekker ; Synes. Epist. 4 ; KaTaTreVacr/xoc, Matt, xxvii. 51), a curtain ; (faTioj/), •a sail. In private houses curtains were either hung as coverings over doors (Sueton. Claud. 10), or they served in the interior of the house as substitutes for doors. (Sen. Epist. 81.) [JANUA.] In the palace of the Roman emperor a slave, called relarius, .was stationed at each of the principal doors to raise the curtain when any one passed through. (Inscript. ap. Pignor. de Servis, p. 470.) Window-curtains were used in addition to window-shutters. (Juv. ix, 80.) Curtains sometimes formed partitions in the rooms (Plin. Epist. iv. 19), and, when drawn aside, they were kept in place by the use of large brooches (fibulae). Iron curtain-rods have been found extending from pillar to pillar in a building at Herculaneum. (Gell, Pompeiana., roll p. 160, Lon. 1832.)
In temples curtains served more especially to veil the statue of the divinity. They were drawn tiside occasionally so as to discover the object of worship to the devout. (Apuleius, Met. xi. p. 127, ed. Aldi.) [pastophorus.] Antiochus presented to the temple of Jupiter at Olympia a woollen curtain of Assyrian manufacture, dyed with the Tyrian purple and interwoven with figures. When the statue was displayed, this curtain lay upon the ground, and it was afterwards drawn up by means of cords ; whereas in the temple of Diana at Ephesus the corresponding curtain or veil was attached to the ceiling, and was let down in order to conceal the statue. (Paus. v. 12. § 2.) The an-
woodcut is from a bas-relief representing two females engaged in supplication and sacrifice before the statue of a goddess. The altar is adorned for the occasion [sertum], and the curtain is drawn aside and supported by a terminus. (Guat-tani, Mon. Ined. per 1786, Nov. T. iii.)
In the theatres- there were hanging curtains to decorate the scene. (Virg. Georg. iii. 25 ; Propert. iv. I. 15.) The siparium was extended in a wooden frame. The velarium was an awning stretched over the whole of the cavea to protect the spectators from the sun and rain. (Juv. iv. 121 ; Sueton. Calig. 26.) These awnings were in general either woollen or linen ; cotton was used for this purpose a little before the time of Julius Caesar. (Plin. H. N. xix. I. s. 6 ; Dion Cass. xliii. 24 ; Lucret. vi. 108.) This vast extent of canvass was supported by masts (mali^ Lucret. L c.} fixed into the outer wall. The annexed woodcut shows the form and position of the great rings, cut out of lava, which remain on the inside of the wall of the Great Theatre at Pornpeii near the top, and which are placed at regular distances, and one of them above another, so that each mast was fixed into two rings. Each ring is of one piece with
the stone behind it. At Rome we observe a similar contrivance in the Coliseum ; but the masts were in that instance ranged on the outside of the wall, and rested on 240 consoles, from 'which