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the particular facts of a case which must have been known to Atticus. (See Casaubon's note on Cic. ad Att. i. 5.)

The auctoritas of a Tutor was not required in the case of any Obligatio by which the woman's condition was iinproved ; but it was necessary in cases where the woman became bound. (Gains, i. ]92, iii. 108 ; Ulp. Frag. tit. 11. s. 27; Cic. pro Caecin. 25.) If the woman wished to promise a Dos, the auctoritas of a Tutor was necessary. (Cic. pro Place. 35.) By the Lex Julia, if a woman was in the legitima tutela of a pupillus, she might apply to the Praetor Urbanus for a Tutor who should give the necessary auctoritas in the case of a Dos constituenda. (Gains, i. 178 ; Ulp. Frag. 11. tit. 20.) As a woman could alienate Res nee mancipi without the consent of a Tutor, she could contract an obligation by lending money, for by delivery the money became the property of the receiver. A senatusconsultum allowed a wo­man to apply for a Tutor in the absence of her Tutor, unless the Tutor was a Patronus ; if he was a Patronus, the woman could only apply for a Tutor in order to have his auctoritas for taking possession of an hereditas (ad hereditatem adeun-daui) or contracting a marriage.

The Tutela of a woman was terminated by the death of the Tutor or that of the woman ; by a marriage by which she came in manum viri ; by the privilege of children (jus liberoruni) ; by abdi-catio, and also by the in jure cessio, so long as the Agnatorum tutela was in use : but in these two last cases there was only a change of Tutor.

A woman had no right of action against her Tutor in respect of his Tutela, for he had not the Negotiorum gestio, or administration of her pro­perty, but only interposed his Auctoritas. (Gaius, i. 191.)

The tutela mulierum existed at least as late as Diocletian, a. d. 293 (Vat. Frag. § 325). There is no trace of it in the Code of Theodosius, or in the legislation of Justinian.

(The most recent and the most complete work on the Roman Tutela is said to be by Rudorff (Das RecJit der Vormundschaft, 1832—1834), the sub­ stance of which appears to be given by Rein, Das Rom. Privatreeld, p. 239, &c.; Gaius, i. 142—200; Ulp. Frag. xi. xii.; Inst. 1. tit. 13—26 ; Dig. 26 and 27; Cod. 5. tit. 28—75.) [G. L.]

TUTULUS was the name given to a pile of liair on a woman's head. Great pains were taken by the Roman ladies to have this part of the hair dressed in the prevailing fashion, whence we read in an inscription of an ornatrioa a tutulo. (Gruter, 579. 3.) Sometimes the hair was piled up to an enormous height. (Lucan, ii. 358 ; Juv. vi. 503 ; Stat. Silv. i. 2. 114.) The Tutulus seems to have resembled very much the Greek ;e<fy>u/A€os, of which a representation is given in the first woodcut on p. 329, a.

The Flaminica always wore a Tutulus, which was formed by having the hair plaited up with a purple band in a conical form. (Festus, s. v.)

TYMPANUM (Tv/juravov), a small drum car­ried in the hand. Of these, some resembled in all respects a modern tambourine with bells. Others presented a flat circular disk on the upper surface and swelled out beneath like a kettledrum, a shape which appears to be indicated by Pliny when he describes a particular class of pearls in the follow­ing terms: *4 Quibus una tantum est facies, et ab


ea rotunditas, avefsis planities, ob id tympania vocantur." (H. N. ix. 54.) Both forms are repre­sented in the cuts below. That upon the left is from a painting found at Pompeii (Mus. Borbon. torn. vii. tav. 37), that on the right from a fictile vase (Millin, Peiniures de Vases Antiques, pi. 56), and here the convexity on the under side is dis­tinctly seen. Tympana were covered with tlia"

hides of oxen (Ovid. Fast. iv. 342 ; Stat. TJieb. ii. 78) or of asses (Phaedr. iii. 20. 4), were beaten (Suet. Aug. 68) with a stick (Phaedr. I. c.) or with the hand (Ovid. Met. iv. 30 ; see cuts), and were much employed in all wild enthusiastic reli­gious rites (Aristoph. Lysistr. i. 387), especially the orgies of Bacchus and of Cybele (Catull. Ixiv. 262; Claud. deCons. Stilich. iii. 365; Lucret. ii. 618 ; Catull. Ixiii. 8; Virg. A en. ix. 619; Claud. Eutrop. i. 278 ; compare Lobeck, Aglaophamus, pp.-630, 652), and hence Plautus (True. ii. 7. 49) characterises an effeminate coxcomb as " Moechum malacum, cincinnatum, umbraticolam, tympanotri-bam." According to Justin (xli. 2) they were used by the Parthians in war to give the signal for the onset.

2. A solid wheel without spokes for heavy waggons (Virg. Georg. iv. 444), such as is shown in the cut on page 923. These are to this day common in the rude carts of southern Italy and Greece, and Sir C. Fellows (Excursions in Asia Minor, p. 72), from whose work the figure below is copied, found them attached to the farm vehicles of Mysia, " The wheels are of solid blocks of wood, or thick planks, generally three, held to­gether by an iron hoop or tire ; a loud creaking noise is made by the friction of the galled axle," a satisfactory commentary on the "stridentia plaustra " of Virgil (Georg. iii. 536).

3. Hence, wheels of various kinds, a sort of crane worked by a wheel for raising weights (Lucret. iv. 903 ; Vitruv. x. 4 ; antlia), a wheel, for drawing water (Vitruv. x. 14), a solid toothed wheel forming part of the machinery of a mill (Vitruv. x. 9, 10), and the like.

4. An ancient name for round plates or chargers, such as were afterwards called lances and staterae. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 52.)

5. An architectural term signifying the flat sur­face or space within a pediment, and also the square panel of a door. (Vitruv, iii. 3, iv. 6.)

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