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TUHRIS.

of Jugurtha (Sallust. Jug. 103), the tower of a private citizen without the walls of Carthage, by the help of which Scipio took the city (Appian. Pun. 117) ; and, in Spain, the tower in which Cn. Scipio was burnt. (Appian. Hisp. 16.) Such towers were common in the frontier provinces of the Roman empire. (Ammian. Marcell. xxviii. 2.)

2. They were erected within cities, partly to form a last retreat in case the city should be taken, and partly to overawe the inhabitants. In almost all Greek cities, which were usually built upon a hill, rock, or some natural elevation, there was a kind of tower, a castle, or a citadel, built upon the highest part of the rock or hill, to which the name of Acropolis was given, as at Athens, Corinth, Argos, Messene, and many other places. The Capitolium at Rome answered the same purpose as the Acropolis in the Greek cities ; and of the same kind were the tower of Agathocles at Utica (Appian. Pun. 14), and that of Antonia at Jeru­salem. (Joseph. Bell. Jud. v. 5. § 8, Act. Apostol. xxi. 31.)

3. The fortifications both of cities and camps were strengthened by towers, which were placed at intervals on the murus of the former [MuRUs] and the vallum of the latter ; and a similar use was made of them in the lines (circumvaUatio) drawn round a besieged town. [vallum.] They were generally used at the gates of towns and of stative camps. [PoRTA.] The use of temporary towers on walls to repel an attack will be noticed below.

II. Movedble Towers. These were among the most important engines used in storming a fortified place. They were of two kinds. Some were made so that they could be taken to pieces and carried to the scene of operations: these were called folding towers (trvpyoi ttt{>ktoi or eTrruy/AeVot, turres plicatiles, or portable towers, (popyrol irvpyoi). The other sort were constructed on wheels, so as to be driven up to the walls;. and hence they were called turres ambulatoriae or subrotatae. But the turres plicatiles were generally made with wheels, so that they were also ambulatoriae.

The first invention or improvement of such towers is ascribed by Athenaeus the mechanician (quoted by Lipsius, Oper. vol. iii. p. 297) to the Greeks of Sicily in the time of Dionysius I. (b. c. 405.) Diodorus'(xiv. 51) mentions towers on wheels as used by Dionysius at the siege of Motya. He had before (xiii. 54) mentioned towers as used at the siege of Selinus (b. c. 409), but he does not say that they were on wheels. According to others, they were invented by the engineers in the service of Philip and Alexander, the most famous of whom were Polyidus, a Thessalian, who assisted Philip at the siege of Byzantium, and his pupils Chaereas and Diades. (Vitruv. x. 19. s. 13.) Heron (c. 13) ascribes their invention to Diades and Chaereas, Vitruvius (L c.} to Diades alone, and Athenaeus (I. c.) says that they were improved in the time of Philip at the siege of Byzantium. Vitruvius states that the towers of Diades were carried about by • the army in separate pieces. Respecting ^the towers used by Demetrius Poliorcetes at the siege of Rhodes, see helepolis.

Appian mentions the turres plicatiles (Bell. Civ. v. 36, 37), and states that at the siege of Rhodes Cassius took such towers with him in his ships, and had them set up on the spot. (Id. iv. 72.)

Besides the frequent allusions in ancient writers

1175

TURRIS.

to the moveable towers (turres mobiles, Liv. xxi. 11), we have particular descriptions of them by Vitruvius (x. 19. s. 13), and Vegetius (iv. 17).

They were generally made of beams and planks, and covered, at least on the three sides which were exposed to the besieged, with iron, not only for protection, but also, according to Josephus, to in­crease their weight and thus make them steadier. They were also covered with raw hides and quilts, moistened, and sometimes with alum, to protect them from fire. The use of alum for this purpose appears to have originated with Sulla at the siege of Athens. (Amm. Marc. xx. and Claud. Quadrig. ap. Lips. p. 300.) Their height was such as to overtop the walls, towers, and all other fortifica­tions of the besieged place. (Liv. xxi. 11.) Vitru­vius (I. c.), following Diades, mentions two sizes of towers. The smallest ought not, he says, to be less than 60 cubits high, 17 wide, and one-fifth smaller at the top ; and the greater 120 cubits high and 23£ wide. Heron (c. 13), who also follows Diades, agrees with Vitruvius so far, but adds an intermediate size, half-way between the two, 90 cubits high. Vegetius mentions towers of 30, 40, and 50 feet square. They were divided into sto­ries (tabulata or tecta), and hence they are called turres contabulatae. (Liv. xxi. 34.) Towers of the three sizes just mentioned consisted respec­tively of 10, 15, and 20 stories. The stories de­creased in height from the bottom to the top. Diades and Chaereas, according- to Heron, made the lowest story 7 cubits and 12 digits, those about the middle 5 cubits, and the upper 4 cubits and one-third of a cubit.

The sides of the towers were pierced with win­dows, of which there were several to each story.

These rules were not strictly adhered to in prac­tice.. Towers were made of 6 stories, and even fewer. (Diod. xiv. 51.) Those of 10 stories were very common (IJirt. Bell. Gall. viii. 41 ; Sil. Ital. xiv. 300),. but towers of 20 stories are hardly, if ever, mentioned. !*lutarch (Lucull. 10) speaks of one of 100 cubits.,h'igh used by Mithridates at the siege of Cyzicus..

The use of the stories was to receive the engines of war [tormenta], and slingers and archers were stationed in them and on the tops of the towers. (Liv. xxi. 11.) In the lowest story was a battering-ram [aries] ; and in the middle one or more bridges (ponies) made of beams and planks, and protected at the sides by hurdles. Scaling-ladders (scalae) were also carried in the towers, and when the missiles had cleared the walls, these bridges "and ladders enabled the be­siegers to rush upon them.

The towers were placed upon wheels (generally 6 or 8), that they might be brought up to the walls. These wheels were placed for security in­side of the tower.

The tower was built so far from the besieged place as to be out of the enemy's reach, and then pushed up to the walls by men stationed inside of and behind it. (Caesar, B. G. ii. 30, 31 ; Q. Curt, viii. 10.) The attempt to draw them forward by beasts of burthen was sometimes made, but was easily defeated by shooting the beasts. (Procop. Bell. Goth. i. ap. Lips. p. 298.) They were gene­rally brought up upon the agger (Hirtius, /. c.), and it not unfrequently happened that a tower stuck fast or fell over on account of the softness of the agger. (Liv. xxxii. 17; Q. Curt. iv. 6. § 9.) They

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