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On this page: Turibumjm – Turma – Turris

1174 TUNICA.

(Apul. Florid, ii. p. 32 ; Metam. viii. p. 533, ed. Oud. ; Vopisc. Prob. 4.) The Supparus or Sup-parum is said by Festus (s. v.) to have been a linen vest, and to have been the same as the Subucula; but Varro (v. 131), on the contrary, speaks of it as a kind of outer garment, and contrasts it with Subucula^ which he derives from subtus, while sup-parus he derives from supra. The passage of Lucan (ii. 364) in which it is mentioned does not enable us to decide whether it was an outer or under gar­ment, but would rather lead us to suppose that it. was the former. Persons sometimes wore several tunics, as a protection against cold : Augustus wore four in the winter, besides a Subucula. .(Suet. Aug. 82.)

As the dress of a man usually consisted of an under tunic, an outer tunic, and the toga, so that of a woman, in like manner, consisted of an under tunic {Tunica intima, Gell. x. 15), an outer tunic, and the falla. The outer tunic of the Roman; matron was properly called Stola [stola], and is represented in the woodcut on p. 1073 ; but the annexed woodcut, which represents a Roman em­press in the character of Concordia, or Abundantia, gives a better idea of its form. (Visconti, Mo-numenti Gabini, n. 34 ; Bottiger, Sabina, tav. x.) Over the Tunic or Stola the Palla is thrown in many folds, but the ^hape .of the former is still distinctly show.n.

The tunics of women were larger and longer than those of men, and always had sleeves ; but in ancient paintings and statues we seldom find the sleeves covering more than the upper part of the arm. An example of the contrary is seen in the Museo Borbonico, vol. vii. tav. 3. Sometimes the tunics were adorned with golden ornaments called Leria. (Festus, s. v.; Gr. \7jpoi, Hesych. Suid. s. v.)

Poor people, who could not afford to purchase a toga, wore the tunic alone, whence we find the common people called Tunicati. (Cic. in Hull. ii. 34 ; Hor. Epist. i. 7. 65.) Persons at work laid aside the toga ; thus, in the woodcut on p. 808, a man is represented ploughing in his tunic only. A person who wore only his tunic was frequently called nudus.

Respecting the Clavus Latus and the Clavus Augustus, worn on the tunics of the Senators and Bguites respectively, see clavus.

TURRIS.

When a triumph was celebrated, the conqueror wore, together with an embroidered toga (Toga picta\ a flowered tunic (Tunica palmata), also called Tunica Jovis, because it was taken from the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. (Liv. x. 7 ; Mart, vii. 1; Juv. x. 38.) [TRsiUMPHUs, p. 1166, a,] Tunics of this kind were sent as presents to foreign kings by the senate. (Liv. xxx. 15, xxxi. 11.)

TURIBUMJM (frvwar-fipiov), a censer. The Greeks and Romans, when :they sacrificed, com­monly took a little frankincense out of the acerra and let it fall upon the flamipg altar. [ara.] More rarely they used a censer, by means of which they burnt the incense in greater .profusion, and which was in fact a small moveable grate or foculus. (Aelian, V. H, xii. 51.) The annexed woodcut, taken from an ancient painting, shows the per­formance of both of these acts at the same time. Winckelmann (Mqn. Jned. 177) .supposes it to re­present ;Livia, the wife, and ;G)ctavia, the sister of Augustus, sacrificing to Mars in gratitude for his safe return from Spain. (Hor. Carm. iii. 14. 5.) The censer here represented has two handles for the purpose.of carrying it from place to place, and it stands upon feet so that the air might be ad­mitted underneath, and pass upwards through the fuel.

As the censer -was destined for the worship of the gods, it was often made of gold or silver (Ep. ad Heb. ix. 4 ; Thucyd. vi. 46) and enriched with stones and gems. (Herod, iv. 162 ; Cic. Verr. iv. 21—24.) We find a silver censer in the official enumerations of the treasures presented to the Par­ thenon at Athens : its bars (Siepeur^uara) were of bronze. (Bockh, Corp. Inscrin. vol. L pp. 198, 235, 238.) [J. Y.]

TURMA. [exercitus, p. 497, b.]

TURRIS (Trupyos), a tower. The word Tvpais, from which .comes the Latin tnrris, signified ac-cording to Dionysius (i. 26) any strong building surrounded by walls ; and it was from the fact of the Pelasgians in Italy dwelling in such places that the same writer supposes them to have been called Tyrsenians or Tyrrhenians, that is, the in­habitants of towns or castles. Turns in the old Latin language seems to have been equivalent to urbs. (Potyb. xxvi. 4 ; Gottling, Gescli. d. Rom. Staatsv. p. 17.) The use of towers by the Greeks and Romans was various.

I. Stationary Towers. 1. Buildings of this form are frequently mentioned by ancient authors, as forming by themselves places of residence and defence. This use of towers was very common in Africa. (Diod. Sic. iii. 49, Itin. Ant. pp. 34, 35, with Wesseling's notes.) We have examples in the tower of Hannibal on his estate between Acholla and Thapsus (Liv., xxxiii. 48), the turns

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