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TUNICA.

It seems impossible to determine with certainty whether the Diploidion formed part of the Chiton, or was a separate piece of dress. Those writers who maintain the former view, think that it is quite proved by the left-hand figure in the pre­ceding cut ; but this is not conclusive evidence, since the Chiton may have terminated at the waist. In the right-hand figure we see that the Chiton is girded round the middle of the body, as described above, and that the fold which overhangs (ko\ttos) forms, with the end of the Diploidion, a parallel line, which was always the ease. This is also plainly seen in the woodcut to the article umbra-culum. Since the Diploidion was fastened oyer the shoulders by means of buckles or clasps, it was called 67rw,uis, which Mtiller (Arcli'dol. d.. Kunst, § 339. 4) supposes from Eurip. Hecub. 553, and Athen. xiii. p. 608, b, to have been only the end of the garment fastened on the shoulder ; but these passages do not necessarily prove this, and Pollux (vii. 49) evidently understands the word as mean­ing a garment itself.

Besides the word xir(^v^ we also meet with the diminutives xirwv'iffKOS and xlt^>viov-> tne former of which is generally applied to a garment worn by men, and the latter to one worn by women, though this distinction is not always preserved. A ques­tion arises whether these two words relate to a dif­ferent garment from the Chiton, or mean merely a smaller one. Many modern writers think that the Chiton was not worn immediately next the skin, but that there was worn under it a shirt (xirtavicr-/cos) or chemise (%iTcof/io//). In the dress of men, however, this does not appear to have been the case ; since we find xiTcwicrKos frequently used as identical with xt?u>v> and spoken of as the only under garment worn by individuals. (To ijjl&tiqv nal rbv xiTtoviffKov, Plat. Hipp. Mm. p. 368 ; Dem. in Mid. p. 583. 21 ; Aesch. in Tim. p. 143 ; Athen. xii. p. 545, a.) It appears, on the contrary, that females were accustomed to wear a chemise (xitcc-viov] under their Chiton, and a representation of such an one is given in p. 185. (Compare Athen. xiii. p. 590, f. ; Aristoph. Lysistr. 48, 150.)

It was the usual practice among the Greeks to wear an Himation, or outer garment, over the Chiton, but frequently the Chiton was worn alone. A person who wore only a Chiton was called fj-oj/o-yiTtov (QloyiTtov in Homer, Od. xiv. 489), an epithet given to the Spartan virgins, as explained above. In the same- way, a person who wore only an Himation, or outer garment, was called a%irco^. (Xen. Mem. i. 6. § 2 ; Aelian, V. H. vii. 13 ; Diod. Sic. xi. 26.) The Athenian youths, in the earlier times, wore only the Chiton, and when it "became the fashion, in the Pelopoimesian war, to wear an outer garment over it, it was regarded as a mark of effeminacy. (Aristoph. Nub. 964, com­pared with 987.)

Before passing on to the Roman under garment, it remains to explain a few terms which are ap­plied to the different kinds of Chiton. In later times, the Chiton worn by men was of two kinds, the djU</>J/ua<r%aAos and the eT*epo/j.d(rxa^osi the former the dress of freemen, the latter that of slaves. (Pollux, vii. 47.) The a,u<£ijuacrxaAos appears to have signified not only a garment which had two sleeves, but also one which had openings for both arms ; while the erepOjua<rxaAo,s, on the contauy, had only a sleeve, or rather an opening for the left arm, leaving the right, with the shoulder and a

TUNICA. 1J73

part of the breast uncovered, whence it is called qu/ms, a representation of which is given on p. 512. When the sleeves of the Chiton reached down to the hands, it seems to have been properly called XeipiSuros (Gell. vii. 12, see woodcut, p. 329), though this word seems to have been frequently used as equivalent to a^ijuaVxaAos. (Hesych. s. v.

A xLr<^v opOoo-rdSios was one which was not fastened round the body with a girdle (Pollux, vii. 48 ; Phot. Lex. p. 346s, Pors.) i a xir^ 0"roAi5w-tos seems to have had a kind of flounce at the bottom. (Pollux vii.. 54 ; Xenoph. Cyrop. vi. 4. §2.)

On the subject of the Greek Chiton in general, see Milller, Dorians, iv. 2. § 3, 4, Arclidoloyie der Kunst, § 337, 339 ; Becker, Charikles, vol. ii. p. 309, &c.

2. roman, The Tunica of the Romans, like the Greek Chiton, was a woollen under garment, over which the Toga was worn. It was the Indu­mentum or Indutus, as opposed to the Amiclus* the general term for the toga, pallium, or any other outer garment. [amictus.] The Romans are said to have had no other clothing originally but the toga ; and when the Tunic was first introduced, it was merely a short garment without sleeves, and was called Colobium. (Gell. vii. 1 2 ; Serv. ad Virg, Aen. ix. 616.) It was considered a mark of effe­minacy for men to wear Tunics with long sleeves (manicatae) and reaching to the feet \talares). (Cic. Cat. ii. 10.) Julius Caesar was accustomed to wear one which had sleeves, with fringes at the wrist (ad manus fimbriata^ Suet. Jul. 45), and in the later times of the empire, tunics with sleeves, and reaching to the feet, became common.

The Tunic was girded (cincta} with a belt or girdle around the waist, but was usually worn loose, without being girded,, when? a person was at home, or wished to be at his ease. (Hor. Sat. ii. 1. 73 ; Ovid, Am. i. 9. 41.) Hence we find the terms cinctus, praecinctus, and succinctus, applied, like the Greek etf^ojyos1, to an active and diligent person, and discinctus to one who was idle or disso­lute. (Hor. Sat. i. 5. 6, ii. 6. 107, Epod. i. 34.)

The form of the Tunic, as worn by men, is re­presented in many woodcuts in this work. In works of art it usually terminates a little above the knee ; it has short sleeves, covering only the upper part of the arm, and is girded at the waist (see cuts, pp. 90, 808): the sleeves sometimes, though less frequently, extend to the hands (cut, p. 141).

Both sexes usually wore two tunics, an outer and an under, the latter of which was worn next the skin, and corresponds to our shirt and che­mise. Varro (ap. Non. xiv. 36) says, that when the Romans began to wear two tunics, they called them Subucula, and Indusium^ the former of which Bottiger (Sabina, vol. ii. p. 1 1 3) supposes to be the name of the under tunic of the men, and the latter of that of the women. But it would appear from another passage of Varro (L. L. v. 131, ed. Miiller) referred to by Becker (Gallus, vol. ii. p. 89), as if Varro had meant to give the name of Subucula to the under tunic, and that of Indusium or Intusium to the outer, though the passage is not without dif­ficulties. It appears, however, that Subucula was chiefly used to designate the under tunic of men. (Suet. Aug. 82 j Hor. Epist. i. 1. 95.) The word interula was of later origin, and seems to have ap­plied equally to the under tunic of both sexes*

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