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1172

TUNICA.

ton. (Compare Herod, v. 87 ; Schol, ad Eurip. Hecub. 933.) Euripides (Hecub. I. c., Androm. 598) incorrectly calls this Doric dress Peplos, and speaks of a Doric virgin as povoirfTrXos. From the circumstance of their only wearing one garment, the Spartan virgins were called yvfjival (Plut. Lye. 14) [NuDUS], and also ^oi/oxtruves. (Schol. ad Eurip.Lc.; Athen. xiii. p. 589, f.) They appeared in the company of men without any further cover­ ing ; but the married women never did so without wearing an upper garment. This Doric Chiton •was made, as stated above, of woollen stuff ; it was without sleeves, and was fastened over both shoulders by clasps or buckles (Trdpirat, TrepoVcu), which were often of considerable size. (Herod. Schol. ad Eurip. II. cc.) , It was frequently so short as not to reach the knee (Clem. Alex. Paed. ii. 10, p. 258), as is shown in the figure of Diana, on p. 276, who is represented as equipped for the chase. It was only joined together on one side, and on the other was left partly open or slit up (ffXKTTos x^rwi/, Pollux, vii. 55), to allow a free motion of the limbs : the two skirts (irrepvyes} thus frequently flew open, whence the Spartan virgins were sometimes called (paivo/AypiSes (Pollux, /. c. ), and Euripides {Androm. I. c.) speaks of them as with .

is Kal TrgTrAors

Examples of this <r%icrT<}s xitwi> are frequently seen in works of art: the following cut is taken from a bas-relief in the British Museum, which re­presents an Amazon with a Chiton of this kind : some parts of the figure appear incomplete, as the original is mutilated. (See also Mus. Borbon. vol. iv. t. 21.)

TUNICA.

with the buckles or clasps of their dresses, the single Athenian who had returned alive from the expedi­tion against Aegina, because there were no buckles or clasps required in the Ionic dress. The Muses are generally represented with this Chiton. The woodcut annexed, taken from a statue in the British Museum, represents the Muse Thalia wear­ing an Ionic Chiton. The Peplum has fallen off her shoulders, and is held up by the left hand. The right arm holding a Pedum is a modern restoration.

Both kinds of dress were fastened round the middle with a girdle [ZoNA], and as the Ionic Chiton was usually longer than the body^ part of it was drawn up so that the dress might not reach further than the feet, and the part which was so drawn up overhung or overlapped the girdle, and was called ko\ttos.

There was a peculiar kind of dress, which seems to have been a species of double Chiton, called Si-TrAofa, §i7rAol'§joj>, and yfuSLTrAoffiiov. Some writers suppose that it was a kind of little cloak thrown over the Chiton, in which case it would be an Amictus, and could not be regarded as a Chiton ; but Becker and others maintain that it was not a separate article of dress, but was merely the upper part of the cloth forming the Chiton, which was larger than was required for the ordinary Chiton, and was therefore thrown over the front and back. The following cuts (Mus. Borbon. vol. ii. t. 4, 6) will give a clearer idea of the form of this garment than any description.

The Ionic Chiton, on the contrary, was a long and loose garment, reaching to the feet (iroStfpijs), with wide sleeves (Kopcw), and was generally made of linen. The sleeves, however, appear usually to have covered only the upper part of the arm j for in ancient works of art we seldom find the sleeves extending further than the elbow, and sometimes not so far. The sleeves were sometimes slit up, and fastened .together with an elegant row of brooches (Aelian, V. H. i. 18), and it is-to this kind, of garment that Bpttiger (Kleine Sclirift. vol. iii. p. 56) incorrectly gives the name of o^o'tos xirtav. The Ionic Chiton, according to Herodotus (v. 87, 88), was originally a Carian dress, and passed over to Athens from Ionia. The women at Athens ori­ginally wore the Doric Chiton, but were compelled tp change it for the Ionic after they had killed,

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