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On this page: Tubilustrium – Tunica

TUBA.

Heradid* 830), and other Greek (Auctor. JRJtes. 988 ; Brunck, Anal. torn. ii. p. 142) and Roman writers (Tyrrkenus clangor, Virg. Aen. viii. 526 ; Stat. Theb. iii. 650 ; TyrrJienae clangore tubae, Silius, ii. 19). According to one account it was first fabricated for the Tyrrhenians by Athena, who in consequence was worshipped by the Ar-gives under the title of 2aA7iry£ (Schol. ad Horn. II. xviii. 219, e. cod. Vict. ; Pausan. ii. 21. § 3); while at Rome the tuHlustrium, or purification of sacred trumpets, was performed on the last day of the Quinquatrus. [quinquatrus.] In another legend the discovery is attributed to a mythical king of the Tyrrhenians, Maleus, son of Hercules and Omphale (Lutat. ad Stat. T/ieb. iv. 224, vi. 404 ; Hygin. Fab. 274 ; Schol, ad Horn. I. c.), in a third to Pisaeus the Tyrrhenian (Plin. H. N. vii. 57 ; Photius, s. i>.), and Silius has preserved as tradition (viii. 490), according to which the origin of this instrument is traced to Vetulonii. (Miiller, Die Etrusker, iv. 1, 3, 4, 5.)

There appears to have been no essential differ­ence in form between the Greek and Roman or Tyrrhenian trumpets. Both were long, straight, bronze tubes gradually increasing in diameter, and terminating in a bell-shaped aperture. They pre-

sent precisely the same appearance on monuments of very different dates, as may be seen from the cuts annexed, the former of which is from Trajan's column, and the latter from an aneient fictile vase. (Hope, Costumes of the Ancients, pi.

The scholiast on the Iliad (I. c.) reckons six va­rieties of trumpets ; the first he calls the Grecian 2«\7ri7| which Athena discovered for the Tyrrhe­nians, and the sixth, termed by him /car' e|ox^ the rvpffrjviKr) <rd\Trtyj-, he describes as bent at the extremity (/cctfSWa K€K\afffj.4vov e%oufra) ; but by this we must unquestionably understand the sacred trumpet (tepaTifo) (Ta\7rry|, Lydus, de Mens. iv. 6), the lituus already noticed at the beginning of this article. (Compare Lucan, i. 431.) [W. R.]

1171

TUNICA.

TUBILUSTRIUM. [quinquatrus.] TUBUS, TUBULUS. [fistula.] TULLIANUM. [carcer.] TUMULTUA'RII. [tumultus.] TUMULTUS was the name given to a sudden or dangerous war in Italy or Cisalpine Gaul, and the word was supposed by the ancients to be a contraction of timor multus. (Cic. Phil. viii. I ; tumulius dictus, quasi timor multus, Serv. ad Virg. Aen. ii. 486, viii. 1 ; Festus, s. v. TumuUuarii.} It was however sometimes applied to a sudden or dangerous war elsewhere (Liv. xxxv. 1, xli. 6 j Cic. Phil. v. 12) ; but this does not appear to have been a correct use of the word. Cicero (Phil. viii. 1) says that there might be a war without a tu-multus, but not a tumultus without a war ; but it must be recollected that the word was also applied to any sudden alarm respecting a war ; whence we find a tumultus often spoken of as of less importance than a war (e. g. Liv. ii. 26), because the results were of less consequence, though the fear might have been much greater than in a regular war.

In the case of a tumultus there was a cessation from all business (justitiwn), and all citizens were obliged to enlist without regard being had to the exemptions (vaeationes) from military service, which were enjoyed at other times. (Cic. II. cc. ,• Liv. vii. 9, 11, 28, viii. 20, xxxiv. 56.) As there was not time to enlist the soldiers in the regular manner, the magistrate appointed to command the army displayed two banners (vexilla). from the capitol, one-red, to summon the infantry, and the other green^ to summon the cavalry, and said, ".Qui rempublicam ealvam vult, me sequatur." Those that assembled took the military oath to­gether, instead of one by one, as was the usual practice, whence they were called conjurati, and their service conjuratio. (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. viii. 1.) Soldiers enlisted in this way were called Tumultuarii or Siibitarii. (Festus, s. v.; Liv. iii. 30, x. 21, xl. 26.)

TUNICA (xitmv, dim. xifomo-Kos the under-garment of the Greeks and Romans.

1. greek. The Chiton was the only kind of evtivfjia, or under-garment worn by the Greeks. Of this there were two kinds, the Dorian and Ionian. The Dorian Chiton, as worn by males, was a short woollen shirt, without sleeves • the Ionian was a long linen garment, with sleeves. The under­garment, afterwards distinguished as the Dorian, seems to have been originally worn in the whole of Greece. Thucydides (i. 6) speaks as if the long linen garment worn at Athens a little before his time was the most ancient kind, since he attributes the adoption o£ a simpler mode of dress to the Lacedaemonians, but we know with tolerable cer­tainty that this dress was brought over to Athens by the lonians of Asia. (Miiller, de Minerva Po~ Hade, p. 41, Dor. iv. 2. § 4.) It was commonly worn at Athens during the Persian wars, but ap­pears to have entirely gone out of fashion about the time of Pericles, from which time the Dorian Chiton was the under-garment universally adopted by men through the whole of Greece. (Athen. xii. p. 512, c ; Eustath. p. 954. 47 ; Thucyd. I. ce; Aristoph. Equit. 1330.)

The distinction between the Doric and Ionic Chiton still continued in the dress of women. The Spartan virgins only wore this one garment, and had no upper kind of clothing, whence it is some­times called Himation [pallium] as well as C5W-

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