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glares nnd persons of lower rank: their court appears to have been near the Maenian column. (Festtis, /. c.; Gell. iii. 3 ; Plant. Amplntr. i. 1 3 ; Cic. pro Cluc-.nt. 13.) Niebuhr (I. c.), who is followed by Arnold (Hist, of Rome, vol. ii. p. 389), supposes that they might inflict summary punishment on all offenders against the public peace who might be taken in the fact ; but the passage of Festus, which Niebuhr quotes, does not prove this, and it is improbable that they should have had power given them of inflicting summary punishment upon a Roman citizen, especially since we have no instance recorded of their exercising such a power. (Walter, G-esch. d. Rom. Reclits, pp. 165, 858, 1st ed.; Go tiling, Gescfi. d. Rom. Staatsv. p. 378.)
3. triumviri coloniae deducendae were persons appointed to superintend the formation of a colony. They are spoken of under colonia, p. 315, b. Since they had besides to superintend the distribution of the land to the colonists, we find them also called Triumviri Coloniae Deducendae Agroque Dividundo (Liv. viii. 16), and sometimes simply Triumviri Agro Dando (Liv. iii. 1).
4. triumviri epulones, [epulones.]
5. triumviri equitum turmas recognos-cendi, or legendis equitum decuriis, were magistrates first appointed by Augustus to revise the lists of the Equites, and to admit persons into the order. This was formerly part of the duties of the censors. (Suet. Aug. 37 j Tacit. Ann. iii. 30.)
8. triumviri nocturni, were magistrates elected annually, whose chief duty it was to prevent fires by night; and for this purpose they had to go round the city during the night (vigilias circumire). If they neglected their duty they were sometimes 'accused before the people by the tribunes of the plebs. (Val. Max. viii. 1. § 5, 6.) The time at which this office was instituted is unknown, but it must have been previously to the year b.c. 304. (Liv. ix. 46.) Augustus transferred their duties to the Praefectus Vigilum. (Dig. 1. tit. 15. s. 1.) [praefectus vigilum.]
9. triumviri reficiendis aedibus, extraordinary officers elected in the Comitia Tributa in the time of the second Punic war, were appointed for the purpose of repairing and rebuilding certain temples. (Liv. xxv. 7.)
10. triumviri reipublicae constituendae. Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, vol. iii. p. 43) supposes that magistrates under this title were appointed as early as the time of the Licinian Rogations, in order to restore peace to the state after the commotions consequent upon those Rogations. (Lydus, de Mag. i. 35.) Niebuhr also thinks that these were the magistrates intended by Varro, who mentions among the extraordinary magistrates, that had the right of summoning the senate, Triumvirs for the regulation of the republic, along with the Decemvirs and Consular Tribunes. (Gcll. xiv. 7.) We have not, however, any certain mention of officers or magistrates under this name, till towards the close of the republic, when the supreme power was shared between Caesar (Octavianus), Antonius, and Lepidus, who administered the affairs of the state under the title of Triumviri Reipublicae Constiiuendae. This office was conferred upon them in B. c, 43 for five years (Liv. Epit. 1'20 ;
Appian, B. C. iv. 2—12 ; Dion Cass. xlvi. 54 Veil. Pat. ii. 65 ; Plut. Cic. 46 ); and on the expiration of the term, in b. c. 38, was conferred upon them again, in B. c. 37, for five years more. (Appian, B. C. v. 95 ; Dion Cass. xlviii. 54.) The coalition between Julius Caesar, Pompeius, and Crassus, in b. c. 60 (Veil. Pat. ii. 44 ; Liv. Epit. 103) is usually called the first triumvirate, and that between Octavianus, Antony, and Lepidus, the second ; but it must be borne in mind that the former never bore the title of triumviri, nor were invested with any office under that name, whereas the latter were recognized as regular magistrates under the above-mentioned title.
11. triumviri sacris conquirendis donis-que persignandis, extraordinary officers elected in the Comitia Tributa in the time of the second Punic war, seem to have had to take care that all property given or consecrated to the gods was applied to that purpose. (Liv. xxv. 7.)
TROCHUS (rpoX6s\ a hoop. The Greek boys used to exercise themselves like ours with trundling a hoop. It was a bronze ring, and had sometimes bells attached to it. (Mart. xi. 22. 2, xiv. 168, 169.) It was impelled by means of a hook with a wooden handle, called clavis (Propert iii. 12), and eAcmfp. From the Greeks this custom passed to the Romans, who consequently adopted the Greek term. (Hor. Carm. iii. 24. 57.) The hoop was used at the gymnasium (Properfc. 1. c. • Ovid. Trist. ii. 485) ; and, therefore, on one of the gems in the Stosch collection at Berlin, which is engraved in the annexed woodcut, it is accompanied by the jar of oil and the laurel branch, the signs of effort and of victory. On each side of this we have represented another gem from the same collection. Both of these exhibit naked youths trundling the hoop by means of the hook or key. These show the size of the hoop, which in the middle figure has also three small rings or bells on its circumference. (Winckelmann, Desc,. des Pierrcs Gravces, pp. 452—455.)
In a totally different manner hoops were used in the performances of tumblers and dancers. Xenophon describes a female dancer who receives twelve hoops in succession, throwing them into the air and catching them again, her motions being regulated by another female playing on the pipe. (Sywpos. ii. 7, 8.)
On the use of rpo^os^ to denote the potter's wheel, see fictile. [J. Y.]
TROJAE ludus. [Cmcus, p. 288, b.]
TROPAEUM (tpottcuoj/, Att. rpaTratov, Schol, ad Aristoph. Plut. 453), a trophy, a sign and memorial of victory, which was erected on the field