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TRIUMPHUS.

the most unquestionable evidence. (Cic. in Verr. v. 30 ; Liv. xxvi. 13; Joseph, vii. 24.) Pom-pey, indeed, refrained from perpetrating this atro­city in his third triumph (Appian, Bell. Miili. 117), and Aurelian on like occasion spared Zenobia, but these are quoted as exceptions to the general rule. When it was announced that these murders had been completed (Joseph I. c.) the victims were then . sacrificed, an offering from the spoils was presented to Jupiter, the laurel wreath was de­posited in the lap of the god (Senec. Consol. ad Helv. 10 ; Plin. H. N. xv. 40 ; Plin. Paneg. 8 ; Stat.^Zv. iv. 1. 41), the Imperatorwas entertained at a public feast along with his friends in the tem­ple, and returned home in the evening preceded by torches and pipes, and escorted by a crowd of citizens. (Flor. ii. 1.) Plutarch (Q. R. 77) and Valerius Maximus (ii. 8. § 6) say that it was the practice to invite the consuls to this banquet, and then to send a message requesting them not to come, in order, doubtless, that the Imperator might be the most distinguished person in the company.

The whole of the proceedings, generally speak­ing, were brought to a close in one day, but when the quantity of plunder was very great, and the troops very numerous, a longer period was re­quired for the exhibition, and thus the triumph of Flaminitis continued for three days in succession. (Liv. xxxix. 52; Pint. Aemil. Paull. 32.)

But the glories of the Imperator did not end with the show nor even with his life. It was customary (we know not if the practice was in­variable) to provide him at the public expense with a site for a house, such mansions being styled iriumpliales domus. (Plin. xxxvi. 24. § 6.) After death his kindred were permitted to deposit his ashes within the walls (such, at least, is the ex­planation given to the words of Plutarch, Q. JR. 78), and laurel-wreathed statues standing erect in triumphal cars, displayed in the vestibulum of the family mansion, transmitted his fame to pos­terity.

A triumphus navalis appears to have dif­fered in no respect from an ordinary triumph except that it must have been upon a smaller scale, and would be characterized by the exhibition of beaks of ships and other nautical trophies. The earliest upon record was granted to C. Duilius, who laid the foundation of the supremacy of Rome by sea in the first Punic war (Liv. Epit. xvii.; Fast. Capit.); and so elated was he by his success, that during the rest of his life, whenever he re­turned home at night from supper, he caused flutes to sound and torches to be borne before him. (Flor. ii. 1 ; Cic. Cat. Maj. 13.) A second naval tri­umph was celebrated by Lutatius Catulus for his victory off the Insulae Aegates, b. c. 241 (Val. Max. ii. 8. § 2 ; Fast. Capit.) ; a third by Q. Fabius Labeo, b. c. 189, over the Cretans (Liv. xxxvii. 60), and a fourth by C. Octavius over King Perseus (Liv. xlv. 42) without captives and without spoils.

triumph us castrensls was a procession of the soldiers through the camp in honour of a tri-bunus or some officer, inferior to the general, who had performed a brilliant exploit. (Liv. vii. 36.)

After the extinction of freedom the Emperor being considered as the commander-in-chief of all the armies of the state, every military achievement was understood to be performed under his auspices, and. hence, according to the forms of even the

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TRIUMVIRI,

ancient constitution, he alone had a legitimate claim to a triumph. This principle was soon fully recognised and acted upon, for although Antonius had granted triumphs to his legati (Dion Cass. xlix, 42), and his example had been freely followed by Augustus (Suet. Octav. 38; Dion Cass. liv. 11, 12) in the early part of his career, yet after the year b.c. 14 (Dion Cass. liv. 24), he entirely discon­tinued the practice, and from that time forward triumphs were rarely, if ever, conceded to any except members of the imperial family. But to compensate in some degree for what was then taken away, the custom was introduced of bestow­ing what were termed Triumplialia Ornamenta^ that is, permission to receive the titles bestowed upon and to appear in public with the robes worn by the Imperatores of the commonwealth when they triumphed, and to bequeath to their descend­ants triumphal statues. These triumpJialia orna« menta are said to have been first bestowed upon Agrippa (Dion Cass. Lc.) or upon Tiberius (Suet. Octav. 9), and ever after were a common mark of the favour of the prince. (Tacit. Ann. i. 72, ii. 52, iii. 72, &c., Hist. i. 79, ii. 78, &c.)

The last triumph ever celebrated was that of Belisarius, who entered Constantinople in a quad­ riga, according to the fashion of the olden time, after the recovery of Africa from the Vandals, The total number of triumphs upon record down to this period has been calculated as amounting to 350. Orosius (vii. 9) reckons 320 from Romulus to Vespasian, and Pitiscus (Lexic. Antiq. s. v. Triumphus] estimates the number from Vespasian to Belisarius at 30. [W. R.]

TRIUMVIRI or TRE'SVIRI, 'were either or­dinary magistrates or officers, or else extraordinary commissioners, who were frequently appointed at Rome to execute any public office. The following is a list of the most important of both classes, ar­ranged in alphabetical order.

1. triumviri agro dividundo. [triumviri coloniab deducendae.]

2. triumviri capitales were regular magis­trates first appointed about b. c. 292. (Liv. Epit. 11 ; Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 30.) The institution of their office is said to have been proposed by L. Papirius, whom Festus (s. v. Scicramentuni) calls tribune of the plebs, but whom Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, vol. iii. pp. 407, 408) supposes to be L> Papirius Cursor, who was praetor in b. c. 292. They were elected by the people, the comitia being held by the praetor. (Festus, I.e.} They succeeded to many of the functions of the Quaestores Parri-cidii. (Varro, L. L. v. 81, ed. Muller ; quaestor.) It was their duty to inquire into all capital crimes, and to receive informations respecting such .(Varro, 1. c.; Plant. Asin. i. 2. 5, AuluL iii. 2. 2 ; Cic. pro Cluent. 13), and consequently they apprehended and committed to prison all criminals whom they detected. (Liv. xxxix. 17 ; Val. Max. vi. 1, §.10 ; Cic. /. c.) In conjunction with the Aediles, they had to preserve the public peace, to prevent all un­lawful assemblies, &c. (Liv. xxv. 1, xxxix. 14.) They enforced the payment of fines due to the state. (Fest. I. c.) They had the care of public prisons, and carried into effect the sentence of the law upon criminals. (Liv. xxxii. 26 ; Val. Max. v. 4. § 7, viii. 4. § 2 ; Sail. Cat. 55 ; Tacit. Ann. v 9.) In these points they resembled the magistracy of the Eleven at Athens. [hendeca.] They had the power of inflicting summary punishment upon

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