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1166

TRIDMPHUS.

headed by the magistrates. The procession then defiled in the following order.

1. The Senate headed by the magistrates. (Dion Cass. li. 21 ; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. 543.) 2. A body of trumpeters. 3. A train of carriages and frames (Josephus, B. J. vii. 24) laden with spoils, those articles which were especially remarkable either on account of their beauty or rarity being disposed in such a manner as to be seen distinctly by the crowd. (Suet. Jul. 37.) Boards were borne aloft on fercula, on which were painted in large letters the names of vanquished nations and countries. Here, too, models were exhibited in ivory or wood (Quinctil. vi. 3) of the cities and forts captured (Plin. v. 5), and pictures of the mountains, rivers, and other great natural features of the subjugated region, with appropriate inscriptions. Gold and silver in coin or bullion, arms, weapons, and horse furniture of every description, statues, pictures, vases, and other works of art, precious stones, elaborately wrought and richly embroidered stuffs, and every object which could be regarded as valu­able or curious. 4. A body of flute-players. 5. The white bulls or oxen destined for sacrifice, with gilded horns, decorated with inftilae and serta, at­tended by the slaughtering priests with their im­plements, and followed by the Camilli bearing in their hands paterae and other holy vessels and in­struments. 6. Elephants or any other strange animals, natives of the conquered districts. 7. The arms and insignia of the leaders of the foe. 8. The leaders themselves, and such of their kindred us had been taken prisoners, followed by the whole band of inferior captives in fetters. 9. The coronae and other tributes of respect and gratitude be­stowed on the Imperator by allied kings and states.

10. The lictors of the Imperator in single file, their fasces wreathed with laurel. (Plin. H. N. v. 40.)

11. The Imperator himself in a circular chariot of

a peculiar form (Zonar. vii. 21) drawn by four horses, which were sometimes, though rarely, white. (Plut. Camill. 7 ; Serv. /. c.; Dion Cass. xliii. 14.) The circular form of the chariot is seen in the pre­ceding cut, copied from a marble formerly in the possession of the Duke d'Alcala at Seville (Mont-faucon, Ant. Exp. vol. iv. pi. cv.), and also in the following cut, which represents the reverse of one of the coins of the Antonines. He was attired in a gold embroidered robe (toga picta) and flowered tunic (tunica palmata)* he bore in his right hand a laurel bough (Plut. Paull. 32), and in his left a sceptre (Dionys. v. 47 ; Val. Max. iv. 4. § 5), his

TRIUMPHUS.

brows were encircled with a wreath of Delphic laurel (Plin. PI. N. xv. 38, 39), in addition to which, in ancient times, his body was painted bright red. (Plin. PI. N. xxiii. 36.) He was accompanied in his chariot by his children of tender years

(Liv. xlv. 40 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 41), and sometimes by very dear or highly honoured friends (Dion Cass. li. 16, Ixiii. 20), while behind him stood a public slave holding over his head a golden Etrus­can crown ornamented with jewels. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 4, xxviii. 7 ; Zonar. vii. 21.) The pre­sence of a slave in such a place at such a time seems to have been intended to avert " in vidia" and the influence of the evil eye, and for the same purpose a fascinum, a little bell, and a scourge were attached to the vehicle. (Plin. H. N. xxviii. 7 ; Zonar. vii. 21.) Tertullian (Apol. 33) tells us, that the slave ever and anon whispered in the ear of the Imperator the warning words " Respice post te, hominem memento te," and this statement is copied by Zonaras (I. c.), but is not confirmed by any earlier writer. Isidorus (xviii. 2), misunder­standing Pliny (xxviii. 7), imagines that the slave in question was a common executioner. 12. Be­hind the chariot or on the horses which drew it (Zonar. I. c.) rode the grown-up sons of the Im­perator, together with the legati, the tribuni (Cic. in Pis. 25), and the equites, all on horseback. 13. The rear was brought up by the whole body of the infantry in marching order, their spears adorned with laurel (Plin. xv. 40), some shouting lo Triumphe (Varro, L. L. v. 7, ed. Miiller ; Hor. Carm. iv. 2. 49 ; Tibull. ii. 6. 121), and singing hymns to the gods, while others proclaimed the praises of their leader or indulged in keen sarcasms and coarse ribaldry at his expense, for the mo&t perfect freedom of speech was granted and exer­cised. (Liv. iv. 53, v. 49, xlv. 38, Dionys. vii. 72; Suet. Jul 49, 51 ; Mart. i. 5. 3.)

The arrangement of the procession as given above is taken, with some changes, from the treatise of Onuphrius Panvinius De Triumpho in the 9th volume of the Thesaurus of Graevius. The dif­ferent particulars are all collected from the accounts transmitted to us of the most celebrated triumphs, such as that of Pompey in Appian (Bell. Miili. 116, 117), of Aemilius Paullus in Plutarch (Paull. 32) and in Livy (xlv. 40), of Vespasian and Titus in Josephus (B. J. vii. 5. § 4, 5, 6), and of Camii-lus in Zonaras (vii. 21), together with the remarks of Dionysius (ii. 34, v. 47), Servius (ad Virg. Aen. iv. 543), and Juvenal (Sat. x. 38—45).

Just as the pomp was ascending the Capitoline hill some of the hostile chiefs were led aside into the adjoining prison and put to death, a custom so barbarous that we could scarcely believe that it existed in a civilized age were it not attested by

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