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viii. 11G) ; and, on the authority of Ulpian (ad JJemt c. Mid. 686), it has been believed that the state acted as Trierarch for each of them ; but in the inscriptions quoted by Bb'ckh (Urkunden, &c., p.- 169), no difference is made between the Trier­archs of the Paralus anil other vessels, and there­fore it would seem that the state appointed Trier­archs for them as well as for other vessels, and provided out of the public funds for those expenses only which were peculiar to them.

IV. On the exemptions from the Trierarchy. — By an ancient law, in force b. c. 355 (Dem. c. Lept.\ no person (but minors or females) could claim exemption from the Trierarchy, who were of sufficient wealth to perform it, not even the de­scendants of Harmodius and Aristogiton. But from Isaeus (De Apoll. Hered. 67) it appears that in the time of the single Trierarchy no person could be compelled to serve a second time within two years after a former service (Suo err? §ia\urd>v'). The nine archons also were exempt, and the Trier­archy was a ground of exemption from the other liturgies, any of which, indeed, gave an exemption from all the rest during the year next following that of its service. (Dem. c. Lept. 459, 464.)

But all property was not subject to the service, as we learn from Demosthenes (De Symm. 182. 14), who tells us that a person was exempt, if dSiWros, or unable to serve from poverty ; so also were " wards, heiresses, orphans, cleruchi, and corporate bodies." Of course an heiress could only claim exemption while unmarried. Wards also were free from all liturgies, during their minority, and for a year after their So/a/mcricc. (Lysias, c. Diogit. 908.) By KArjpouxoi, are meant colonists, who, while absent by the command of the state, could not perform a Trierarchy. The rd Koivwvucd admits of a doubt, but it probably means the pro­perty of joint tenants, as brothers or coheirs, which had not yet been apportioned to them (Pollux, viii. 184), or it may refer to monies invested in partnership. Moreover, though the proper duration of a Trierarchy was a year, it was legally dissolved if the general furnished no pay to the soldiers, or if the ship put into the Peiraeeus, it being then impossible to keep the sailors together. (Demv c. Pblyc. 1209.)

V. On the legal proceedings connected ivith the Trierarchy.—These were either between individual Trierarchs, or between Trierarchs and the state, and therefore in the form of a Di a dig asia. They generally arose in consequence of a Trierarch not delivering up his ship and her rigging in proper order, either to his successor or to the state. If he alleged that the loss or damage of either happened from a storm, he was said (TKr)\tyd(T6ai Kara ^ijj.<ava ch-oAcoAewf, and if his plea were substantiated, cSogei/ 4i> t(£ SiKaffTypiq k. r. X. Vessels or furni­ture on which a trial of this kind had been held, were said to be Sia&eSi/caoyieVa.

The presidency of the courts which tried matters of this sort was vested in the strategi, and some­times in the superintendents of the dockyard, in conjunction with the cmocrToXtis. The senate also appears to have had a judicial power in these matters: e.g. we meet in various inscriptions with the phrase o'tSe t&v rpir/papxcoj/, §>v eSnrAaxrei' 77 jSouAi) T-r\v Tpitfpr]. Bb'ckh conjectures that flie Trierarchs of whom this is said had returned their ships in such a condition, that the state might have called upon them to put thorn in thorough repair, or


to rebuild them, at a cost for an ordinary trireme of 5000 drachmae. Supposing that they were not re­leased from this liability by any decree of a court of justice, and that the rebuilding was not com­pleted, lie conceives that it must have been com­petent (in a clear and flagrant case) for the senate to have inflicted upon them the penalty of twice 5000 drachmae, the technical phrase for which was "doubling the trireme." (Urkunden, &c. p. 228.)

The phrase ^^oXoy^crevrpiripj] Kaivrjv drroSfacrei^, which occurs in inscriptions, does not apply to an undertaking for giving a new trireme, but merely for putting one in a complete state of repair.

The phrase <paivew irXoiov (Dem. c. Lacr. 941), to lay an information against a vessel, is used not of a public ship, but of a private vessel, engaged perhaps in smuggling or privateering. (Bockh, PuU. Econ. of Athens, pp. 541—576, 2d ed.) [R. W.] TRIEROPOII (rpirjpoTroioi). [navis, p. 785, a.]

TRIGON. [PiLA.] TRILIX. [tela, p. 1102, b.] TRINU'NDINUM. [ncjndinae.] TRIO'BOLON. [dicastes, p. 402, b.] TRIO'BOLUS. [drachma.] TRIPLICA'TIO. [AcTio, p. 12, a.] TRIPOS (rpnrous), a tripod, i. e. any utensil or article of furniture supported upon three feet. More especially

I. A three-legged table. [mensa.] The first woodcut, at p. 308, shows such a table in use. Its three supports are richly and tastefully orna­mented. Various single legs (trapezophora, Cic. ad Fam. vii. 23), wrought in the same style out of white marble, red porphyry, or other valuable materials, and consisting of a lion's-head or some similar object at the top, and a foot of the samo animal at the bottom, united by intervening foliage, are preserved in the British Museum (Combe, Ancient Marbles, i. 3, i. 13, iii. 38) and in other collections of antiquities. The tripod used at en­tertainments to hold the crater had short feet, so that it was not much elevated. These tables were probably sometimes made to move upon castors. (Horn. II. xviii. 375).

II. A pot or caldron, used for boiling meat, and either raised upon a three-legged stand of bronze, as is represented in the woodcut, p. 827, or made with its three feet in the same piece. Such a utensil was of great value, and was some­times offered as a prize in the public games (xxiii.-264, 702, 703).

III. A bronze altar, not differing probably in its original form from the tall tripod caldron already described. In this form, but with additional or­nament, we see it in the annexed woodcut, which represents a tripod found at Frejus. (Spon, Misc. Erud. Ant. p. 118.) That this was intended to be used in sacrifice may be inferred from the bull's-head with a fillet tied round the horns, which we see at the top of each leg.

All the most ancient representations of the sacrificial tripod exhibit it of the same general shape, together with three rings at the top to serve as handles (ouara, Horn. II. xviii. 378). Since it-has this form on all the coins and other ancient remains, which have any reference to the Delphic oracle, it has been with sufficient reason concluded that the tripod, from which the Pythian priestess gave responses, was of this kind. The right-hand figure in the woodcut is copied from one

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