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1156

TRIBUS.

twenty "by the conquests of Porsenna, are spoken of under plebes. The four city tribes were called by the same name as the regions which they occupied, viz. Suburana, Esquilina, Collina, and Palatina. (Nw?Q,DcLing. Lot. v. 56. ; Festus, s. v. Urbanas tribus.} The names of the sixteen country tribes which continued to belong to Rome after the conquest of Porsenna, are in their alpha­betical order as follow: Aemilia, Camilla, Cor­nelia, Fabia, Galeria, Horatia, Lemonia, Menenia, Papiria, Pollia (which Niebuhr, i. n. 977, thinks to be the same as the Poblilia, which was insti­tuted at a later time), Papiria, Pupinia, Romilia, Sergia, Veturia, and Voltinia. (Compare Gottling, Gesch. d. Rom. Staatsv. p. 238.) As Rome gra­dually acquired possession of more of the sur­rounding territory, the number of tribes also was gradually increased. When Appius Claudius, with his numerous train of clients, emigrated to Rome, lands were assigned to them in the district where the Anio flows into the Tiber, and a new tribe, the tribus Claudia, was formed. This tribe, 'which Livy (ii. 16, if the reading is correct) calls vetus Claudia tribus, was subsequently enlarged, and was then designated by the name Crustumina or Clustumina. (Niebuhr, i. n. 1236.) This name is the first instance of a country tribe being named after a place, for the sixteen older ones all derived their names from persons or heroes who were in the same relation to them, as the Attic heroes called cTrciW/Aoi were to the Attic phylae. In b. c. 387, the number of tribes was increased to twenty-five by the addition of four new ones, viz. the Stella-tina, Tromentina, Sdbatina, and Arniensis. (Liv. vi. 5 ; Niebuhr, ii. p. 575.) In 358 b. c. two more, the Pomptina and Publilia, were formed of Volscians. (Liv. vii. 15.) In b. c. 332, the Censors Q. Publilius Philo and Sp. Postumius increased the number of tribes to twenty-nine, by the addition of the Maecia and Scaptia. (Liv. viii. 17.) In b. c. 318 the Ufentina, andFalerina were added. (Liv. ix. 20.) In b.c. 299 two others, the Aniensis and Terentina were added by the censors (Liv. x. 9), and at last, in b. c. 241, the number of tribes was augmented to thirty-five, by the addition of the Quirina and Velina. This number was never afterwards increased, as none of the conquered nations were after this incorporated with 'the so­vereign Roman state. (Liv.Epit. 19, i. 43.) When the tribes, in their assemblies, transacted-any busi­ness, a certain order (ordo tribuum} was observed, in which they were called upon to give their votes. The first in the order of succession was the Subu-rana, and the last the Arniensis. (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 29.) Any person belonging to a tribe had in important documents to add to his own name that of his tribe, in the ablative case. (NoMEN, p. 802 b. Compare Becker, Handb. der Rom. Altcrih. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 164, &c.)

Whether the local tribes, as they were established by the constitution of Servius Tullius, contained only the plebeians, or included the patricians also, is a point on which the opinions of modern scholars are divided. Niebuhr, Walter, and others, think that the patricians were excluded, as they had al­ready a regular organization of their own; Wachs-muth, Gerlach, Rein, Becker, and others, on the contrary, maintain that the patricians also were in­corporated in the Servian tribes ; but they allow, at the same time, that by far the majority of the people in the assemblies of the tribes were plebeians, and

THIBUTUM.

that hence the character of these assemblies was es­sentially plebeian ; especially as the patricians, being so few in numbers, and each of them having no more influence in them than a plebeian, seldom attended the meetings of the tribes. The passages, however, which are quoted in support of this opinion, are partly insufficient to prove the point (as Liv. ii. 56, 60 ; Dionys. ix. 41), and partly belong to a later period, when it certainly cannot be doubted that the patricians belonged to the tribes. We must therefore suppose, with Niebuhr, that down to the decemviral legislation the tribes and their assem­blies were entirely plebeian.

The assemblies of the tribes (comitia tributa), as long as they were confined to the plebeians, can scarcely have had any influence upon the affairs of the state : all they had to do was to raise the tri- butum, to hold the levies for the armies, and to manage their own local and religious affairs. [Tm- bunus; plebes.] (Fest. s. vv. Juga/rius, Publica sacra, Sobrinm ; Varro, de Ling. Lat. vi. 24 ; Cic. pro Dom. 28 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 4. 16.) Their meetings were held in the forum, and their sphere of action was not extended by the establishment of the republic. The first great point they gained was through the lex Valeria, passed by Valerius Publicola. [leges valeriae.] But the time from which the increase of the power of the co- initia of the tribes must be da,ted, is that in which the tribuni plebis were instituted (494 B. c.). During the time of the decemviral legislation the comitia were for a short time deprived of their influence, but we have every reason to believe that immediately after, probably by this legislation it­ self, the comitia tributa, instead of a merely ple­ beian, became a national assembly, inasmuch as henceforth patricians and freeborn clients were in­ corporated in the tribes, and thus obtained the right of taking part in their assemblies. (Liv. iv. 24, v. 30, vi. 18, xxix. 37.) This new con­ stitution of the tribes also explains the otherwise unaccountable phenomena mentioned in the article tribunus, that patricians sought the protection of the tribunes, and that on one occasion even two of the tribunes were patricians. From the latter fact it has been inferred, with great probability, that about that time attempts were made by the patri­ cians to share the tribuneship with the plebeians. But notwithstanding the incorporation of the patri­ cians in the tribes, the comitia tributa remained essentially plebeian, as the same causes, which would have acted, had the patricians been included in the tribes by Servius Tullius, were still in ope­ ration ; for the patricians were now even fewer in number than two centuries before. Hence the old name of plebiscitirm, which means originally a re­ solution of the plebes only, although in a strict sense of the word no longer applicable, was still retained, as a resolution of the comitia tributa was practically a resolution of the plebes, which the patricians, even if they had voted against it unani­ mously, could not have prevented. Moreover, owing to this, the patricians probably attended the comitia tributa very seldom. For n more detailed account of the comitia tributa, see comitia tri­ buta. [LSI TRIBU'TA COMFflA [comitia.]

TRIBUTORIA ACTIO. [sbrvus, p. 1037.]

TRIBUTUM is a tax which, as Niebuhr (HisL of Rome, i. p. 468) supposes, was at first paid only by the plebeians, since the name itself is used by

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