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learn from Pollux (viii. Ill) that these divisions, though the names seem to import family connection, were in fact artificial ; which shows that some advance had now been made towards the establishment of a closer political union. The members of the fypaTpiai and ytvn had their respective religious rites and festivals, which were preserved long after these communities had lost their political importance, and perhaps prevented them from being altogether dissolved. (Compare Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 311, &c.)
The relation between the four Ionic tribes and the three classes, into which Theseus divided the :nation, is a difficult and perplexing question. It would appear from the statements of ancient writers on the subject that each of the four tribes was divided into Eupatridae, Geomori, and Demiurgi; which is confirmed by the fact that the four (pv\o€a<Ti\eis, who were the assessors of the sovereign, were all taken from the Eupatridae, but at the same time one from each tribe. [phylo-basileis.] This, as Thiiiwall (Hist, of Greece, vol. ii. p. 10) has remarked, can only be conceived possible on the supposition, that the distinctions which originally separated the tribes had become merely nominal ; but Maiden (Hist, of Rome., p. 140), who rejects the notion that the four Ionic tribes were castes deriving their name from their employment, supposes that the Tribes or Phylae consisted of the Eupatridae alone, and that the latter were divided into four Phylae like the patricians at Rome into three. The Geomori and Demiurgi had therefore, according to his supposition, nothing to do with the tribes. This view of the subject would remove many difficulties and is most in accordance with the subsequent history and political analogies in other states, but seems hardly supported by sufficient evidence to warrant us in re-.ceiving it.
After the age of Theseus, the monarchy having been first limited and afterwards abolished, the whole power of the state fell into the hands of the Eupatridae or nobles, who held all civil offices, and had besides the management of religious affairs, arid the interpretation of the laws. Attica became agitated by feuds, and we find the people, shortly before the legislation of Solon, divided into three parties, IIeSm?oi or lowlanders, Aidttpioi or high-landers, and Tidpa\oi or people of the sea coast. The two first remind us of the ancient division of tribes, Mesogaea and Diacris ; and the three parties appear in some measure to represent the classes established by Theseus : the first being the nobles, whose property lay in the champaign and most fertile part of the country; the second, the smaller landowners and shepherds ; the third, the trading and mining class, who had by this time risen in wealth and importance. To appease their discords, Solon was applied to ; and thereupon framed his celebrated constitution and code of laws. Here .we have only to notice, that he retained the four tribes as he found them, but abolished the existing distinctions of rank, or at all events greatly diminished their importance, by introducing his property qualification, or division of the people into nej/raKOtnojUe'SiyUT'Of, 'Iinreis, Zevyirai, and ©f/res1. The enactments of Solon continued to be the law at Athens, though in great measure suspended by the tyranny, until the democratic reform effected by Qeisthenes. He abolished the old tribes, and created ten new ones, according to a geographical divi-
sion of Attica3 and named them after ten of the ancient heroes : ErecUJieis, Aegeis, Pandionis, Leontis, Acamantis, Oeneis^ Cecropis, Hippothoontis, Aean~ tis, Antiochis. These tribes were divided each into ten 5^/xoi, the number of which was afterwards increased by subdivision ; but the arrangement was so made, that several S^juot not contiguous or near to one another were joined to make up a tribe. [demus.] The object of this arrangement was, that by the breaking of old associations a perfect and lasting revolution might be effected, in the habits and feelings, as well as the political organization of the people. He allowed the ancient (pparpiai to exist, but they were deprived of all political importance. All foreigners admitted to the citizenship were registered in a Phyle and Demus, but not in a Pbratria or Genos; whence Aristophanes (Ranae, 419, Aves, 765) says, as a taunting mode of designating new citizens, that they have no phrators, or only barbarous ones (quoted by Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 312). The functions which had been discharged by the old tribes were now mostly transferred to the S^yuot. Among others, we may notice that of the forty-eight vavupapiai into which the old tribes had been divided for the purpose of taxation, but which now became useless, the taxes being collected on a different system. The reforms of Cleisthenes were destined to be permanent. They continued to be in force (with some few interruptions) until the downfal of Athenian independence. The ten tribes were blended with the whole machinery of the constitution. Of the Senate of five hundred, fifty were chosen from each tribe. The allotment of diKacrrai was according to tribes; and the same system of election may be observed in most of the principal offices of state, judicial and magisterial, civil and military ; as that of the Stai-ttjtcu, \oyiffTai, TrwArjTat, ra/^iat, re^OTrofot, <pv-Xapxot) (TTpaTTjyoi, &c. In b. c. 307 Demetrius Poliorcetes increased the number of tribes to twelve by creating two new ones, namely Antigonias and Demetrias,.which afterwards received the names of Ptolemais and Attalis; and a thirteenth was subsequently added by Hadrian, bearing his own name. (Plut. Demetr. 10; Paus. i. 5. § 5; Pollux, viii. 110.)
The preceding account is only intended as a brief sketch of the subject, since it is treated of under several other articles, which should be read in connection with this. [civitas (greek) ; demus; phylarchi ; phylobasileis, &c.]
(See Wachsmuth, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 224—240;. Hermann, Lehrtwch d. GriecJi. Staats. §§ 24, 93, 94, 111, 175, 176 ; Schomann, Ant.jur.pub. pp. 165, 178, 200, 395 ; Thirlwall, vol. ii. pp. 1—14, 32, 73.) [C. R. K.]
2. roman. The three ancient Romulian tribes, the Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres, or the Ram*-nenses, Titienses, and Lucerenses, to which the patricians alone belonged, must be distinguished from the thirty plebeian tribes of Servius Tullius, which were entirely local, four for the city, and twenty-six for the country around Rome. The history and organization of the three ancient tribes is spoken of under patricii. They continued of political importance almost down to the time of the decemviral legislation ; but after this time they no longer occur in the history of Rome, except as an obsolete institution.
The institution and organization of the thirty plebeian tribes, and .their subsequent reduction to
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