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unnatural, which no atrocity of guilt can appal/1 Still they have had admirers : Heinsius calls the Hippolytus " divine," and prefers the Troades to the Hecuba of Euripides : even Racine has borrowed from the Hippolytus in his Phedre.
Roman tragedians sometimes wrote tragedies on subjects taken from their national history. Pacuvius, e. g. wrote a Paulus, L. Accius a Bruins and a Decius. (Cic. de Div. \. 22.) Curiatius Ma- ternus, also a distinguished orator in the reign of Domitian, wrote a Domitius and a Cato, the latter of which gave offence to the rulers of the state (potentiitm animos ojfendit, Tacit. Dial. 2 ; Lang. Vind. Trag. Roman, p. 14). The fragments of the Thyestes of Varius are given by Bothius, Poet. Seen. Lat. Frag. p. 279. " [R. W.]
TRAGULA. [hasta, p. 589, a.]
TRANSACTIO IN VIA. [AcTio, p. ] 1, a.]
TRANSTRA. [N.\vis, p. 788, a.]
TRANSVE CTIO EQUITUM. [equites.]
TRAUMATOS EK PRONOIAS GRAPHE (rpavtu.aros etc irpcyoias 7pa0r}). Our principal information respecting this action is derived from two speeches of L}rsias, namely, Trpbs ^iacova and ircpl rpavuaros e'/c irpovoias, though they do not supply us with many particulars. It appears, however, that this action could not be brought by any person who had been wounded or assaulted by another, but that it was necessary to prove that there had been an intention to murder the person who had been wounded ; consequently the irpovoia consisted in such an intention. Cases of this kind were brought before the Areiopagus : if the ac cused was found guilty, he was exiled from the state and his property confiscated. (Compare Dem. c. Aristocr. 627. 22, c. Boeot. 1018. 9, Aesch. de Fats. Leg. 270, c. Ct.es. 440, 608 ; Lys. c. Andoc. p. 212 ; Lucian, Tinion, 46 ; Pollux, viii. 40 : Meier, Att. Proc. p. 314.) TRESSIS. [As, p. 141, a.]
TRIARII. [exercitus, pp. 495 —497, 501, b.]
TRIBULA or TRI'BULUM (rpi€6\os), a corn-drag, consisting of a thick and ponderous wooden board, which was armed underneath with pieces of iron or sharp flints and drawn over the corn by a yoke of oxen, either the driver or a heavy weight being placed upon it, for the purpose of separating the grain and cutting the straw. (Varro, de Re Rust. i. 52; Ovid. Met. xiii. 803 ; Plin. PL N. xviii. 30 ; Longus, iii. 22 ; Brunck, Anal. ii. 215 ; Amos, i. 3.) Together with the tribula another kind of drag, called tmlia, was also sometimes used, which it is probable was either entirely of stone or made of the trunk of a tree. (Virg. Georg. i. 164 ; Servius, ad loc. ; Col. de Re Rust. ii. 21.) These instruments are still used in Greece, Asia Minor, Georgia, and Syria, and are described by various travellers in those countries, but more especially by Paul Lucas (Voyage, vol. i. p. 182). Sir R. K. Porter (Travels, vol. i. p. 158), Jackson (Journey from India, p. 249), and C. Fellows, (Journal, pp. 70, 333). The corn is threshed upon a circular floor (area, aAwz/), either paved, made of hardened clay, or of the natural rock. It is first heaped in the centre, and a person is constantly occupied in throwing the sheaves under the drag as the oxen draw it round. Lucas and Fellows have given prints representing the tribula as now
used in the East. The verb trilulare (Cato, de Re Rust. 23), and the verbal noun trilmlatio were ap plied in a secondary sense to denote affliction in general. [ J. Y ]
TRFBULUS (rpiSoXos), a caltrop, also called murex. (Val. Max. iii. 7. § 2 ; Curt. iv. 13. § 36.) When a place was beset with troops, the one party endeavoured to impede the cavalry of the other party either by throwing before them caltrops, which necessarily lay with one of their four sharp points turned upwards, or by burying the caltrops with one point at the surface of the ground. (Veget. de Re Mil. iii. 24; Jul. Afric. 69. op. Vet.
Math. Graec. p. 311.) The annexed woodcut is taken from a bronze caltrop figured by Caylus (Recueil, iv. pi. 98). [J. Y.]
TRIBUNAL (/3%ta), a raised platform, or, to use the term adopted from the French, tribune, on, which the praetor and judices sat in the Basilica. It is described under basilica (p. 199).
There was a tribunal in the camp, which was generally formed of turf, but sometimes, in a stationary camp, of stone, from which the general addressed the soldiers, and where the consul and tribunes of the soldiers administered justice. When the general addressed the army from the tribunal, the standards were planted in front of it, and the army placed round it in order. The address itself was called Alioeutio. (Plut. Pomp. 41; Lipsius, de Milit. Rom. iv. 9 ; castra.)
A tribunal was sometimes erected in honour of a deceased imperator, as, for example, the one raised to the memory of Germanicus. (Tacit. Annal. ii. 83.)
Pliny (H. N. xvi. 1) applies the term to em bankments against the sea. [P. S.]
TRIBUNUS. This word seems originally to have indicated an officer connected with a tribe (tribus), or who represented a tribe for certain purposes ; and this is indeed the character of the officers who were designated bv it in the earliest
times of R-rme, and may be traced also in the. later officers of this name. We subjoin an account of all the Roman officers known under this name.
1. tribunes op the three ancient tribes. At the time when all the Roman citizens were contained in the three tribes of the Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres, each of them was headed \)j a tribune (<pi>\apxos, Dionys. ii. 7; Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 20; Serv. ad Aen. v. 560), ahd these three tribunes represented their respective tribes in all civil, religious, and military affairs ; that is to say, they