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virilis) was generally white, that is, the natural colour of white wool Honce it was called pura or vestimentum puritnt, in opposition to the praetexta mentioned below. A brighter white w s given to the toga of candidates for offices (candidate from their toga Candida} by rubbing .it with chalk. There is an allusion to this custom in the phrase cretata ,ambitio. (Pers. v. 177.) White togas are often mentioned as worn at festivals, which does not imply that they were not worn commonly, but that new or fresh-cleaned togas were first put on at festivals. (See Lipsius, Elect, i. 13, in Oper. vol. i. pp. 256, 257.) The toga was kept white and clean by the fuller [FuLLo]. When this was neglected, the toga was called sordida, and those who wore such garments sordidati. This dress (with disarranged hair and other marks of dis­order about the person), was worn by accused per­sons, as in the case of Cicero. (Pint. do. 30, 31 ; Dion Cass. xxxviii. 16 ; Liv. vi. 20.) The toga pulla^ which was of the natural colour of black wool, was worn in private mourning, and some­times also by artificers and others of the lower orders. (See the passag-s in Forcellini, s. tv. Pullus, Pidlatus.} The toga picta, which was ornamented with Phrygian embroidery, was worn bv generals

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in triumphs [TftiUMPHus], and under the em­perors by the consuls, and by the praetors when they celebrated the games. It was also called Capitolina. (Lamprid. A lex. Sever, c. 40.) The toga palmata was a kind of toga picta. The toga prarfewta had a broad purple border/ It was worn with the bulla, by children of both sexes. It was also worn by magistrates, both those of Rome, and those of the colonies and miinicipia, by the sacerdotes, and by persons engaged in sacred rites or paying vows. (Liv. xxxiv. 7 ; Festus, s. v. Praeteocta pulla.} Among those who possessed the jus togae praetextae habendae, the following may be more particularly mentioned: the dictator, the consuls, the praetors (who laid aside the praetexta when about to condemn a Roman citizen to death), the augurs (who, however, are supposed by some to have worn the trabea), the decemviri sacris faciundis [decemviri], the aediles, the triumviri epulones, the senators on festival da}rs (Cic. Phil, ii. 43), the magistri collegii, and the magistri vieorum when celebrating games. [magister.] In the case of the tribuni plebis, c nsors. and quaestors there is some doubt upon the subject. The prueleorta pufla might only be worn at the celebration of a funeral. (Festus. /. c.)

The toga praetexta, as has been above remarked, is said to have been derived from the Etruscans. It is said to have been first adopted, with the latus clarvus [CtAvus' latus], by Tullus Hostilius as the royal robe, whence its use by the magistrates in the republic. (Plin. H N. ix. 39. s. 63.) Ac­cording to Macrobius (Sat. i. 6) the toga intro­duced by Hostilius was not only praetexta^ but also picta. Pliny states (//. N. viii. 48. s. 74) that the toga regia undulata (that is, apparently, embroi­der 'd with waving lines or bands) which had been worn by Servius Tullius was preserved in the tem­ple of Fortune. The toga praetexta and the bulla aurea were first given to boys in the case of the son of Tarquinius Prisons, who at the age of four­teen, in the Sabine war, slew an enemy with his own hand. (Macrob. /. o , where other particulars 'respecting the use of the toga praetexta maybe found.) Respecting the leaving off of the toga



praetexta and the assumption of the toga virilis, see impubes,, clavus latus. The occasion was celebrated with great rejoicings by the friends of the youth, who attended him in a solemn pro­cession to the Forum and Capitol. (Valer. Max. v. 4. § 4.) This assumption of the toga virilis was called tirocinium fori, as being the young man's introduction to public life, and the solemnities at­tending it are called by Pliny (Epist. i. 9) officium togae virilis, and by Tertullian (de Idolol. c. 16) solemnitates togae. The public ceremonies, con­nected with the assumption of the toga virilis by the sons of the emperors, are referred ,to by Sue­tonius (Oct. 26, Tib 54, Calif/. 16, Ner. 7). The toga virilis is called libera by Ovid (Fasti, iii. 771). Girls wore the praetexta till their marriage.

The trabea was a toga ornamented with purple horizontal stripes. Servius (ad Aen. vii. 612) men­tions three kinds of trabea ; one wholly of purple, which was sacred to the gods, another of purple and white, and another of purple and saffron, which belonged to augurs. The purple and white trabea was a royal robe, and is assigned to the Latin and early Roman kings, especially to Romulus. (Plin. //. A7, viii. 49, ix. 39 ; Virg. Aen. vii. 187, xi. 334; Ovid. Fast. ii. 504.) It was worn by the consuls in public solemnities, such as opening the temple of Janus. (Virg. A en. vii. 612; Claudian. in Rufin. i. 249.) The equites wore it at the tnmsvectio and in other public solemnities. (Valer. Max. ii. 2 ; Tacit. Ann. iii. 2.) Hence the trabea is mentioned as the badge of the equestrian order. Lastly, the toga worn by the Roman emperors was wholly of purple. It appears to have been first assumed by Julius Caesar. (Cic. Philip, ii. 34.)

The material of which the toga was commonly made was wool. It was sometimes thick and sometimes thin. The former was the faga densa^ pinguis, or hirta. (Suet. Aug. 82 ; Quintil. xii. 10.) A new toga, with the nap neither worn off nor cut close, was called pexa, to which is opposed the trita or rasa, which was used as a summer dress. (Mar­tial, ii. 85.) On the use of silk for togas see sericum.

It only remains to speak of the general use of the toga. It was originally worn by both sexes ; but when the stola came to be worn by matrons, the toga was only worn by the meretric-'S and by women who had been divorced on account of adul­tery. [stola.] Before the use of the toga be­came almost restricted to the upper classes, their toga was only distinguished from that of the lower

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classes by being fuller and more expensive. In war it was laid aside and replaced by the palu-damentum and sagum. Hence togatus is op­posed to miles. The toga was, however, sometimes used by soldiers, but not in battle, nor as their ordinary dress ; out rather as a cloak or blanket. It was chiefly worn in Rome, and hence togatus is opposed to nisticus. The toga was often used as a covering in sleeping ; and lastly, as a shroud for the corpse.

(Becker, Gallus, vol. ii. pp. 78—88; Ferrarius, de Re Vestiaria j Rubenius, de Re Vest.) [P. S.]

TONSOR. [barba.]

TOPIARIUS. [hortus.]

TORALIA.- [torus.]

TO.RCULUM or TO'RCULAR (\w6s\ a press for making wine and .oil. When the grapes were ripe ((rra<f)v\7)\ the bunches were gathered, any which remained unripe (o/z</>a|) or had become

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