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garment was thrown over the left shoulder, and hung down In front, but much lower than in the former case. This seems to be the part which Quintilian (§ 139) says should reach down half­way between the knee and the ankle. In our figure it reaches to the feet, and in somfe statues it is even seen lying on the ground. The garment was then placed over the back, as in the older mode of wearing it, but, instead of covering the right shoulder, it was brought round under the right arm to the front of the body. This is the most difficult part of the dress to explain. Quin­tilian says (§ 140):—"Sinus decentissimus, si aliquanto supra imam togam fuerit, nunquam certe sit inferior. Ille, qui sub humero dextro ad sinis-trum oblique ducitur velut balteus, nee strangulet nee fluat." Becker's explanation of this matter seems perfectly satisfactory. He supposes that the toga, when carried under the right arm, was then folded into two parts ; one edge (namely, the lower or round edge) was then brought almost close under the arm, and drawn, but not tightly, across the chest to the left shoulder, forming the velut balteus of Quintilian, while the other part was al­lowed to fall gracefully over the lower part of the bod}7, forming the sinus, and then the remaining end of the garment was thrown over the left shoulder, and hung down nearly as low as the other end, which was first put on. It is to this part that Quintilian seems to refer when he says (§ 140) : — " Pars togae, quae postea imponitur, sit inferior: nam ita et sedet melius, et continetur ;" but the true application of these words is very doubtful. By the bottom of the toga (imam togam) in the above quotation, he seems to mean the end of the toga first put on. The part last thrown over the left shoulder, as well as the end first put on, co­vered the arm, as in the older mode of wearing the garment. The outer edge (eoctrema ora) of this part ought not, says Quintilian (§ 140), to be thrown back, lie adds (§141), " Super quod ('i. e. sinistnmi brachium) ora ex toga duplex aequaliter sedeat," by which he probably means that the edge of this portion should coincide with the edge of the end which was first thrown over the left shoulder, and which is of course covered by this portion of the garment. He says (§ 141) that the shoulder and the whole of the throat ought not to be co­vered, otherwise the dress will become narrow and


that dignity which consists in width of chest will be lost. This direction appears to mean that the part brought across the chest (velut balteus) should not be drawn too tight.

Tassels or balls are seen attached to the ends of the toga, which may have served to keep it in its place by their weight, or may have been merely ornaments.

There is one point which still remains to be ex­plained. In the figure a mass of folds is seen iu the middle of the part of the toga drawn across the chest (velut balteus). This is the umbo mentioned by Tertullian (de Pallio, 5), and used by Persitis for the toga itself (Sat. v. 33). It was either a portion of the balteus itself, formed by allowing this part of the garment to hang loose (which perhaps it must have done, as it is the curved, and there­fore longer edge that is thus drawn across the chest), and then gathering it up in folds and tucking these folds in, as in the figure, or else the folds whicli composed it were drawn out from the sinus, and either by themselves, or with the loose folds of the balteus, formed the umbo. It seems to have been secured by passing the end of it under the girdle of the tunic ; and perhaps this is what Quintilian means by the words (§ 140), " Subducenda etiam pars aliqua tunicae, ne ad lacerttim in actu redeat."

The back of the figure, which is not seen in our engravings, was simply covered with the part of the garment which was drawn across it, and which, in the ancient mode of wearing it, reached down to the heels. (Quintil. § 143). Quintilian states how low it was worn in his time, but the meaning of his words is very obscure (§ 139: "pars ejus prior mediis cruribus optime terminatur, posterior eadem portione altius qua cinctura." See above).

A garment of the supposed shape of the toga, put on according to the above description, has been found by the writer of this article to present an appearance exactly like that of the toga as seen on statues, and Becker states that he has made simi­lar experiments with equally satisfactory results.

Tertullian (de Pattio, 5) contrasts the simplicity of the Pallium Avith the complication of the toga, and his remarks apply very well to the above de­scription. It appears by his account that the folds of the umbo were arranged before the dress was put on, and fixed in their places by pins or hooks ; but generally speaking it does not seem that the toga was held on by any fastening: indeed the contrary may be inferred from Quintilian's direc­tions to an orator for the management of his toga while speaking (§§ 144—149).

Another mode of wearing the toga was the clnctus Gabinus. It consisted in forming a part of the toga itself into a girdle, by drawing its outer edge round the body and tying it in a knot in front, and at the same time covering the head with another portion of the garment. It was worn by persons offering sacrifices (Liv. v. 46 ; Lucan. i. 596), by the consul when he declared war (Virg. Aen. vii. 612), and by devoted persons, as in the case of Decius. (Liv. v. 46.) Its origin was Etruscan, as its name implies (Servius in Virg. L c.\ Miiller, Etrusker, vol. i. p. 265; Thiersch inAnnal. Acad. Bavar. vol. i. p. 29, quoted by Miiller, Annot. ad Festum, p. 225). Festus (I.e.) speaks of an army about to fight being girt with the cinctus Gabinus. Persons wearing this dress were said to be procincti (or incincti) cinctu (or ritu) Gabitio.

The colour of the toga worn by men (toga.

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