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games, at least when the emperor was present. (Suet. Claud. 6 ; Lamprid. Commod. 16.) Under Alexander Severus guests at the emperor's table were expected to appear in the toga. (Lamprid. Sever. 1.)

The form of the toga, and the manner of wear­ing it, are matters which are much disputed, and about which indeed it seems almost impossible, with our present information, to arrive at certainty.

The form was, undoubtedly, in some sense round (Quintil. xi. 3. § 137 ; Isid. Orig. xix. 24), semi­circular according to Dionysius (iii. 61), who calls it irepi€6\aiov 7]fJHK.vK\iov. It seems, however, impossible, from the way in which it was worn, that it could have been always a semicircle. Such may perhaps have been its form as worn in the most ancient times, when it had no great fulness ; but to account for the numerous folds in which it was afterwards worn, we must suppose it to have had a greater breadth in proportion to its length, that is, to have been a smaller segment than a semicircle. Probably the size of the segment which the toga formed (on which its fulness depended) was determined by the fashion of the time or the taste of the wearer. This appears to be the true explanation of Quintilian's words (xi. 3. § 139), " Ipsam togam rotundam, et a.ptc caesam velim," which could have no meaning if nothing more were required than to give the garment the very simple form of a simicircle. The only other point to be noticed respecting the form of the toga, is the question whether, when it came to be worn in many complicated folds, the art of the tailor may not have been employed to keep these folds in their position. This question, however, belongs more properly to the mode of wearing the toga.

On this subject our principal information is de­rived from Quintilian (xi. 3. §§ 1375 &c.) and Ter-tullian (de Pallio), whose statements, however, refer to the later and more complicated mode of wearing the garment, and from statues in Roman costume.

Frequent reference is made to the Sinus of the toga. This was a portion of the garment, which hung down in front of the body, like a sling • it will be more fully explained presently.

We must make a clear distinction between the more ancient and simpler mode of wearing the toga, and the full form, with many complicated folds, in which it was worn at a later period.


Quintilian (xi, 3. § 137) says that the ancients had no sinus^ and that afterwards the sinuses were very short. The passage in Livy (xxi. 18, sinu ex toga, facto., iterum .sinu effuso} seems to refer not to the sinus, technically so called, but a sinus which Fabius made at the moment by up some part of his toga.

The ancient mode of wearing the toga is shown in the following cut, which is taken from the Augusteum, pi. 117 (Becker, Gallits, vol. ii. p. 83), and represents a statue at Dresden.

Let the toga, which in this case was probably not far from an exact semicircle, be held behind the figure, with the curved edge downwards. First, one corner is thrown over the left shoulder ; then the other part of the garment is placed on the right shoulder, thus entirely covering the back and the right side up to the neck. It is then passed over the front of the body, leaving very little of the chest uncovered, and reaching downwards nearly to the feet (in the figure, quite to one of them). The remaining end, or corner, is*-then thrown back o.yer



the left shoulder, in such a manner as to cover the greater part of the arm. By this arrangement the right arm is covered by the garment, a circumstance noticed by Quintilian (§ 138) ; but it was occa­sionally released by throwing the toga off the right shoulder, and leaving it to be supported on the left alone. This arrangement is seen in many ancient statues ; an example is shown in the following cut, which represents the celebrated statue of Aulus Me-tellus (commonly called the Etruscan orator) in the Florence Gallery. (Miiller, Denhn'dler^ vol. i. pi. Iviii. No. 289.) The portion of the toga which, in

the first figure, hangs down from the chest, if it be a smzfs, is certainly of the kind described by Quin­tilian as perquam brcvis.

The next cut represents the later mode of wear­ing the toga, and is taken from an engraving in the Museo Borbonico (vol. vi. tav. 41) of a statue found at Herculaneum.

By comparing this and other statues with the description of Quintilian, we may conclude that the mode of wearing the toga was something like the-following : —

First, as above remarked, the form in this case was a segment less than a semicircle. As before, the.curved side was the lower, and one end of the

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