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On this page: Tiro – Tirocinium – Tithenidia – Tities – Titii Sodales – Tocos – Toculliones – Toga

1134

TITHENIDIA.

on one of Sir W. Hamilton's vases (i. 43) as car­ ried by a man in the garb of Pan, and probably for the purpose of lustration. (Theocrit. ii. 36 ; Schol. in loo.) Fig. 5 is a bell, or rather a collec­ tion of twelve bells suspended in a frame, which is preserved in the Antiquarium at Munich. This jingling instrument, as well as that represented by fig. 6 (from Bartoli, lug. Sep. ii. 23), may have been used at sacrifices, in Bacchanalian processions, or for lustration. Fig. 7 is a fragment of ancient sculpture, representing the manner in which bells were attached to the collars of chariot-horses. (Ginzrot, uber W'dgen, ii. pi. 57.) [J. Y.J

TIRO was the name given by the Romans to a newly enlisted soldier, as opposed to vetcrcmus, one who had had experience in war. (Caesar, Bell. Civ. iii. 28.) The mode of levying troops is described under exercitus, pp. 496, 499. The age at which the liability to military service commenced was 17.

From their first enrolment the Roman soldiers, when not actually serving against an enemy, were perpetually occupied in military exercises. They were exercised every day (Veget. i. 3), the tirones twice, in the morning and afternoon, and the vete-rani once. The exercises included not only the use of their weapons and tactics properly so called, but also whatever could tend to increase their strength and activity, and especially carrying bur­thens and enduring toil. Vegetms (i. 9—27) enu­merates among the exercises of the tirones march­ing, running, leaping, swimming, carrying the shield, fighting at a post [palus], thrusting with the sword in preference to striking, using their armour, hurling spears and javelins, shooting ar­rows, throwing stones and leaden bullets, leaping on and off their horses, carrying weights-, fortifying the camp, and forming the line of battle.

Vegetius also gives rules for choosing tirones ac­cording to their country, their being rustics or townsmen, their age, stature, personal appearance, and previous occupation (i. 2—8). But these rules refer almost exclusively to the state of things under the emperors, when the army was no longer re­cruited from the citizens of Rome, but from the inhabitants of the provinces.

At this period, the tiro, when approved as fit for the army, was branded or tatooed in the hand with a mark (stigmata ; puncta signorum}, which Lipsius conjectures to have been the name of the emperor.

The state of a tiro was called tirocinium ; and a soldier who had attained skill in his profession was then said tirocinium ponere, or deponere. (Justin. xii. 4, ix. 1.)

(Lipsius, de Milit. Roman, in Oper. vol. iii. pp.32, 33, 184, 193—197.)

In civil life the terms tiro and tirocinium were applied to the assumption of the toga virilis, which was called tirocinium fori [ToGAj, and to the first appearance of an orator at the rostrum, tirocinium c.loquentiae (Senec. Prot.m.\. 2.); and we even have such a phrase as tirocinium navis for the first voyage of a ship. (Plin. PI. N. xxiv. 7. s. 26.) [P. S.J

TIROCINIUM. [tiro.]

TITHENIDIA (i-ifl^ffoa), a festival cele­brated at Sparta, by the nurses who had the care of the male children of the citizens. On this oc­casion the nurses (rirOai) carried the little boys out of the city to the temple of Artemis surnamed Corythallia, which was situated on the bank of the stream Tiassus in the district of Cleta. Here

TOGA.

the nurses sacrificed sucking pigs on behalf of the children, and then had a feast, probably of the meat of the victims, with which they ate bread baked in an oven (iirviras &provs, A then, iv. p. 139 ; comp. Plut. Sympos. iii. 9, Quaest. Gr. vii. p. 211, Wyttenb.; Hesych. s. v. Kopv9a\\i(TTpiai.) [L. S.]

TITIES or TITIENSES. [patrick.]

TITII SODALES, a sodalitas or college of priests at Rome, who represented the second tribe of the Romans, or the Titles, that is, the Sabines, who after their union with the Ramnes or Latins continued to perform their own ancient Sabine sacra. To superintend and preserve these, T. Tatius is said to have instituted the Titii sodales. (Tacit. Annal. i. 54.) In another passage (Hist. ii. 95) Tacitus describes this sacerdotium in a somewhat different manner, inasmuch as he says that it was instituted by Romulus in honour of king Tatius, who after his death was worshipped as a god. But this account seems only to mean that Romulus after the death of Tatius sanctioned the institution of his late colleague and made the worship of Tatius a part of the Sabine sacra. From Varro (do Ling. Lat. v. 85, ed. Miiller), who derives the name Sodales Titii from Titiae aves, which were observed by these priests in certain auguries, it appears that these priests also preserved the ancient Sabine au­ guries distinct from those of the other tribes. Dur­ ing tKe time of the republic the Titii sodales are- no longer mentioned, as the worships of the three tribes became gradually united into one common religion. (Ambrosch,Studien u. Andeut. p. 192, &c.) Under the empire we again meet with a college of priests bearing the name of Sodales Titii or Titienses, or Sacerdotes- Titiales Flaviales ; but they had no­ thing to do with the sacra of the ancient tribe of the Tities, but were priests instituted to conduct the worship of .an emperor, like the Augustales. (Gruter, Inscript. xix. 4, ccciv. 9, cccxcvi. 1 ; In- script. aj>< Murat. 299. 5: comp. Lucan. Phars. i, 602.) [AueusTALEs,] [L. S.]

TOCOS (r6ttos). [fenus.]

TOCULLIONES. [fenus.]

TOGA (TrjGevvos), a gown, the name of the principal outer garment worn by the Romans, is derived by Varro from tegere, because it covered the whole body (v. 144, ed. Miiller). Gellius. (vii. 12) states that at first it was worn alone, without the tunic. [TUNICA.] Whatever may have been the first origin of this dress, which some refer to the Lydians, it seems to have been re­ceived by the Romans from the Etruscans, for it is seen on Etruscan works of art as the only covering of the body, and the toga, praetexta, is expressly said to have been derived from the Etruscans. (Liv. i. 8 ; Plin. H. N. viii. 48. s. 74 ; Miiller, Etruske-r^ vol. i. p. 262.)

The toga was the peculiar distinction of the Ro­mans, who were thence called togati or gens togata. (Virg. Aen. i. 282 ; Martial, xiv. 124.) It was originally worn only in Rome itself, and the use of it was forbidden alike to exiles and to foreigners, (Plin. Epist. iv. 11 ; Suet. Claud. 15.) Gradually, however, it went out of common use, and was sup­planted by the pallium and lacerna, or else it was worn in public under the lacerna. (Suet. Aug. 40.) [lacerna.] But it was still used by the upper classes, whe regarded it as an honourable distinc­tion (Cic. Philip, ii. 30), in the courts of justice, by clients when they received the sportula (Martial, xiv. 125), and in the theatre or at the

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