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TIARA.

its point was thought to incite to madness. (Hor. Carm. ii. 19. 8 ; Ovid. Amor. in. 1.23, iii. 15. 17, Trist. iv. J. 43 ; Brtmck, Anal. iii. 201 ; Orph. Hymn. xlv. 5, 1. 8.) [J. Y.]

TIARA or TIA'RAS (ndpa or ndpas : Ait. Kvpgaffix, Moeris, s. v. ; Herod, v. 49, vii. 64 ; Aristoph. Aves, 487), a hat with a large high crown. Thi3 was the head-dress which character­ized the north-western Asiatics, and more especially the Armenians (Xen. Cyr. 1. § 13; Sueton. Nero^ 13), the Parthiaiio, and the Persians (Herod, iii. 32 ; Philost. Sen. Imag. ii. 31 ; Plant. Pers. iv. 2. 2), as distinguished from the Greeks and Ro­mans, whose hats fitted the head or had only a low crown. The Mysian hat, or " Phr}rgian bon­net," as it is now called [PiLEUS, p. 919, b.], was a kind of tiara (Virg. Aen. vii. 247; Servius, in loc.', Sen. Thyest. iv. 1. 40, 41 ; Philostr. Jim. Imag. 8), formed with lappets to be tied under the chin (Juv. vi. 516 ; Val. Flacc. vi. 700), and dyed purple. (Ovid. Met. xi. 181.)

The king of Persia wore an erect tiara, whilst those of his subjects were soft and flexible, falling on one side. (Herod, vii. 61 ; Xen. Anab. ii. 5. § 23, Cyrop. viii. 3. § 13 ; Schol. in Aristoph. I. e.) He was also distinguished by the splendid colours of his tiara (Themist. Oral. 2. p. 36, c., 24. p. 306, c.), and by a diadem a, which encircled it,

TIBIA.

and which was variegated wTith white spots upon5 a blue ground. The Persian name for this regal head-dress was cidaris. (Curt. iii. 8 ; iddapis or Kirapis, Strabo, xi. 12. § 9 ; Pollux-, vii. § 58.) The preceding woodcut shows the cidaris as repre­ sented on a gem in the Royal Cabinet at Paris, and supposed by Caylus to be worn by a sovereign of Armenia, (Recueil d^Ant. ii. p. 124.) From a very remote period (Aeschyl. Pers. 668) down to the present day the tiara of the king of Persia has been commonly adorned with gold and jewel­ lery. [J. Y.]

TIBIA (ai/Afo), a pipe, the commonest musical instrument of the Greeks and Romans. It was very frequently a hollow cane perforated with holes in the proper places. (Plin. H. N. xvi. 36. s. 66 ; A then. iv. p. 182.) In other instances it was made of some kind of wood, especially box, and was bored with a gimblet (terebrato buoco, Ovid. Fast. vi. 697). The Phoenicians used a pipe, called gingntS) or avXbs yiyypaivos., which did not exceed a span in length, and was made of a small reed or straw. (Athen. iv. p. 174, f; Festus, s.r. Gingriator.) The use of the same variety in Egypt is proved by specimens in the British Museum, which were discovered in an Egyptian tomb.

Whon a single pipe was used by itself, the per­former upon it, as well as the instrument, was called monaulos. (Mart. xiv. 64 ; /xt^auAos1, Brunck, Anal. i. 484.) Thus used, it was much in fashion at Alexandria. (Athen. iv. p. 174, b.) When its size became considerable, and it was both strengthened and adorned by the addition of metallic or ivory rings (Hor. Art. Poet. 202—205; Propert. iv. 6. 8), it must have been comparable to the flageolet, or even to the clarionet of modern times. Among the varieties of the single pipe the most remarkable were the bag-pipe, the performer on which was called utricularius (Sueton. Nero, 54) or acrKauA^s (Onomast.} ; and the auA^y Tr\dyio? or ir\ayiav\os (Theocrit. xx. 29 ; Longus, i. 2 ; Heliodor. Aethiop. v. ; Aelian, //. A. vi. 19 ; Eustath. in Horn. II. xviii. 495), which, as its name implies, had a mouth-piece inserted into it at right angles. Its form is shown'in a restored terminal statue of Pan in the Townley collection of the British Museum. Pan was the reputed inventor of this kind of tibia (Bion, iii. 7) as well as of the fistula or syrinx.

But among the Greeks and Romans it was much more usual to play on two pipes at the same time. Hence a performance on this instrument (tibiciniiim, Gellius, iv. 13), even when executed by a single person, was called canere or cantare tibiis. (Gellius, N. A. xv. 17'; Corn, Nepos, xv. 2. § 1.) This act is exhibited in very numerous works of ancient art, and often in such a way as to make it manifest that the two pipes were perfectly distinct, and not connected, as some have supposed, by a common mouth-piece. We see this more especially in two beautiful paintings, which were found at Resina and Civita Vecchia, and which represent Marsyas teaching the young Olympus to play on the double pipe. (Ant. d' Ercolano, i. tav. 9, iii. tav. 19 ; compare Pans. x. 30. § 5.) The tibiae pares in the British Museum, which were found with a lyre in a tomb at Athens, appear to be of cedar. Their length is about 15 inches. Each of them had a separate mouth-piece (y\uxr(ris), and besides the hole at the end it has five holes along the top and one underneath. The circumstance of these three

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