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On this page: Theoxenia – Therapon – Thermae – Thermopolium – Thesaurus – Theseia – Thesmophoria – Thesmophoria



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A> entrance: B, principal chamber: C, small side


In the earlier times there was no person, or board of persons, expressly appointed to manage the Theoric fund. The money thus appropriated was disbursed by the Hellenotamiae. After the anarchy, the largess system having been restored by Agyrrhius, a board of managers was appointed, who are called apx'h ^tt! r<p ^ewpi/c^J, ol tirl rb rerctyfJLevoi or ftrexetpoToi/rj^ueVot, SteoopiKfy &c. They were elected by show of hands at the period of the great Dionysia, one from each tribe. In the time of Eubulus many other branches of the administration were placed under the control of this board ; as the management of the civil ex­ penditure, the office of the Apodectae, the building of docks, arsenals, streets, &c. This was dictated by an anxiety on the part of'the people that no, part of the revenue should be improperly diverted from the Theoric fund, which they thought would be prevented by increasing the powers of its mana­ gers. But these extraordinary powers appear not to have been of long continuance. (Aeschin. c. Ctesipli. 57, ed. Steph. ; Bockh, p. 170, &c. ; Scho- mann, Id. 320 j Wachsmuth, HcUen. Alt. vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 124—127, 1st ed.) [€. R. K.]

THEOXENIA. [theophania.]

THERAPON (bepdvw). [helo.tiss.]

THERMAE. [balnbae^ p. 193,, b.]

THERMOPOLIUM. [caj&ida ; cajjpona.]

THESAURUS (bri<ravp6s), a treasure-house. That buildings of this description were required, especially by kings and states, in the earliest period of civilization, is self-evident ; and tradition points to subterranean buildings in Greece,, of unknown antiquity and of peculiar formation, as having been erected during the heroic period, for the purpose of preserving precious metals, arms, and other pro-

THESMOPHORIA. 1127 perty (*«/^Aia). Such are the treasury of Mi- nyas, at Orchomenus, described by Pausanias (ix. 38), and of which some remains still exist (Dod- well, vol. i. p. 227), and those of Atreus and his sons at Mycenae (Paus. ii. 16), the chief one of which, the so-called Treasury of Atreus, still exists almost in a perfect state. The preceding woodcut shows a ground-plan of the building, and a section of the principal chamber, which is about 48 feet in diameter, and 50 high, and is vaulted over in the manner described under arcus, p. 128, a. The remains of similar structures have been found at various places in Greece and Italy.

It is, however, very questionable whether these edifices were treasuries at all: some of the best archaeologists maintain that they were tombs. The question cannot be entered into here: a full discussion of it, with a description of the buildings themselves,, will be found in the works now quoted. (MulJteiTj^waJa'oZ. d.Kunst, §§ 48, 291, WelckerY edition.; Welcker's review of Mtiller's Arclidologie, in the RUeiti. Mus. for 1834, vol. ii. pp. 469, foil. ; Col. Mure,. Ueber die Konigliclien Grabm'dler des heroiwJien Zeitakers^ in the Mem. Mus. for 1838, vol. vi. pp. 240, foil. ; we are not aware whether this Essay has been published in English ; Abeken, Mittelitfdien^ pp. 234, foil;)

In the historical times, the public treasury was either in a building attached to the agora, or in the opisfliodomus of some temple. (Hirt, Lelire d. Geb'dude, pp. 189, 190.)

Respecting the public treasury at Ilome, see aerarium. [P. S.]

THESEIA (^(T€?a), a festival celebrated by the Athenians in honour of their national hero Theseus (Aristoph. Pint. G22, &c. with the Schol. Jlies-mopli. 841 ; Suidas, s. v. ©^(reiots), whom they believed to have been the author of their demo-cratsical form of government. In consequence of this belief donations, of bread and meat were given to the poor people at the Theseia, which thus was for them a feast at which they felt no want and might fancy themselves equal to the wealthiest citizens. We learn from Gellius (xv. 20. § 3) that a contest also was held on this occasion, but we are not informed in what it consisted. The day on which this festival was held was the eighth of every month (oy§6ai)9 but more especially the eighth of Pyanepsion, because it was believed that Theseus returned from Crete on that day. (Schol. ad Aristoph. 1. g.\ Plut. Tlies. 36.) Hence the fes­tival was sometimes called bySofiiov. .(Hesych. s. v.) From the passages above referred to,, compared with Diodorus (v. 52), it appears highly probable that the festival of the Theseia was not instituted till b. c. 469, when Cimon brought the remains of Theseus from Scyros to Athens.

(Meursius, Graeo. Fer. s. v. ©^(rem, Tlteseus, p. 133; Corsini, Fast. Att. ii. p. 330 ; Ideler, Histor. Untersuchungen uber die Astronom. Beobachtimg. der Alien, p. 383, &c.) [L. S.J

THESMOPHORIA(©6(r/Ao^pia), a great fes­tival and mysteries celebrated in honour of Demeter in various parts of Greece, and only by married women, though some ceremonies also were per­formed by maidens. The Attic Thesmophoria were held in the month of Pyanepsion and begai* on the eleventh. Its introduction is ascribed by Demosthenes, Diodorus Siculus, and Plutarch (ap. Theodoret. Therap. 1) to Orpheus, while Herodotus (ii. 171) states that it was introduced into Greece

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