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3. To a military machine moving upon wheels and roofed over, used in besieging cities, under which the soldiers worked in undermining the walls or otherwise destroying them. (Caes. B. G. v. 42, 43, B.C. ii. 2.) It was usually covered with raw hides or other materials which could not easily be set on fire. The battering-ram [aries] was frequently placed under a testudo of this kind, which was then called Testudo Arietarla. (Vitruv. x. 19. p. 322, Bip.) Vitruvius also mentions and explains the construction of several other military machines to which the name of Testudines was given (x. 20, 21 ; compare Polyb. ix. 41).
4. The name of Testudo was also applied to the covering made by a close body of soldiers who placed their shields over their heads to secure themselves against the darts of the enemy. The shields fitted so closely together as to present one unbroken surface without any interstices between them, and were also so firm that men could walk upon them, and even horses and chariots be driven over them. (Dion Cass. xlix. 30.) A testudo was formed (testudinem facere) either in battle to ward off the arrows and other missiles of the enemy, or;, which was more frequently the case, to form a protection to the soldiers when they advanced to the walls or gates of a town for the purpose of attacking them. (Dion Cass. L c.; Liv. x. 43 ; Gaes. B. O. ii. 6 ; Sail. Jug. 94 ; see cut annexed, taken
from the Antonine column.) Sometimes the shields were disposed in such a way as to make the testudo slope. The soldiers in the first line stood upright, those in the second stooped a little, and each line successively was a little lower than the preceding down to the last, where the soldiers rested on one knee. Such a disposition of the shields was called Fastigata Testudo^ on account of their sloping like the roof of a building. The advantages of this plan were obvious: the stones and missiles thrown upon the shields rolled off them like water from a roof ; besides which, other soldiers frequently advanced upon them to attack the enemy upon the walls. The Romans were accua-
TETRADRACHMON. [drachma.] TETRARCHA or TETRARCHES (rerpdp %??s). This word was originally used, according to its etymological meaning, to signify the governor of ;he fourth part of a country (rerpapx^ or rerpa-* We have an example in the ancient division of Thessaly into four tetrarchies, which was revived by Philip. (Harpocrat. s. v. Terpapxiai Strabo, ix. p. 430 ; Demosth. PMlipp. ii. p. 117 ; Eurip. Alcest. 1154 ; Thirl wall's Greece, vi. pp. 13, 14.) [tagus.] Each of the three Gallic tribes which settled in Galatia was divided into four tetrarchies, each ruled by a tetrarch. (Strabo, xii. pp. 566, 567; Plm. H. N. v. 42.) This arrange-nent subsisted till the latter times of the Roman republic (Appian. MitJirid. 46, Syr. 50, Bell. Civ. iv. 88), but at last the twelve tetrarchs of Gallo-ecia were reduced to one, namely Deiotarus. (Liv. Epit. xciv. ; Cic. pro Deiot. 15 ; Hirtius, de Bell. Alex. 67.) Some of the tribes of Syria were ruled by tetrarchs, and several of the princes of the house of Herod ruled in Palestine with this title. (Plin. //. N. v. 16, 1.9 ; Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 13. § 1, xvii. 8. § 1, xi. 4. § 18, xvii. 11. § 1, xi. 2. § 1, Vit. 11.) Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, i\. p. 135) remarks that the tetrarchs in Syria were zemindars, who occupied the rank of sovereigns, in the same way as the zemindars of Bengal succeeded under Lord Cornwallis in getting themselves recognised as dependent princes and absolute proprietors of the soil.
In the later period of the republic and under the empire, the Romans seem to have used the title (as also- those of ethnarch and phylarcli) to designate those tributary princes who were not of sufficient importance to be called kings. (Compare Lucan. vii. 227 ; Sallust, Catil. 20 ; Cic. pro Mil. 28, in Vatin. 12 ; Horat. Sat. i. 3.12 ; Veil. Paterc. ii. 51 ; Tacit. Annal. xv. 25.) [P. S.] TETRASTY'LOS. [tbmplum.] TETRO'BOLUS. [drachma.] TETTARACONTA, HOI (ol rerrapdnoisra.^ the Forty^ were certain officers chosen by lot, who made regular circuits through the demi of Atticaj whence they are called Sucao-Tal ko.t& d-fj^ov^ to decide all cases of cuKia. and ra irepl r&v /3mtW, and also all other private causes, where the matter in dispute was not above the value of ten drachmae. Their number was originally thirty, but was increased to forty 'after the expulsion of the thirty tyrants, and the restoration of the democracy by Thrasybulus, in consequence, it is said, of .the hatred of the Athenians to the number of thirty. They differed from other Sf/caerra/, inasmuch:v as they acted as eloraycayeis^ as well as decided causes"; that is, they received the accusation, drew up the indictment, and attended to all that was"" understood in Athenian law by the Tiyc^ovia rov 8iKa<r« rrjpiov. They consequently may be classed among the regular magistrates of the state. (Pollux, viii. 40 ; Harpocrat. s. v. Kara Sr]fj,ovs &/«fcrr?7$ : Rhetor. Lex. 310. 21 ; Demosth. c. Timoer. p. 735, 11, c. Pantaen. p. 976. 10 ; Schubert, De Aedil. pp. 96—98 ; Meier, Ait. Proc. pp. 77—82 ; Scho-mann, Ant. jut. Pull. Grace, p. 267. 10.)
TEXTOR, TEXTRINUM. [tela, p. 1099.]
THALAMITAE, THALA'MII (&a\a/t?ra£, [NAVis, p. 788, a.] . .