The Ancient Library

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III. Another form, of which we have the chief example in the Pantheon, besides some smaller specimens (see Hirt, § 19), consists of a circular cella surmounted by a dome, without a peristyle, but with an advanced portico. The following en­graving represents such a temple, with a prostyle tetrastyle portico, of two slightly different kinds (compare the left and right sides of the portico in the plan) ; the niches are for the statues of three associated deities, such as Apollo, Diana, and Latona ; and thus this form of temple may be re­garded, in its religious design, as a variation of the old Tuscan temple.

The portico of such a temple might be hexa-Style, or even octastyle, as in the Pantheon.



Respecting the more minute details of the con­struction of temples of both sorts, which our space does not permit us to enter into, the reader is re­ferred to the works of Hirt and Stiegiitz, as quoted above ; and lists and brief descriptions of the chief Greek and Roman temples, with references to the works in which they are more fully described, will be found in Miiller's Handbucli der Arch'dologie der Kunst, under the heads of the respective periods ia the history of the art.

Besides the terms which have now been ex­plained, temples- were designated by the names of the deities to whom they were dedicated, as the 'OAu,u7re?of or temple of Zeus Olympius ; the Hap-6€i/cw, or temple of Athena Parthenos, &c. ; and sometimes a name was given according to some peculiar feature of the structure, as in the case of the Parthenon at Athens, which was called Heca-lompedon, because its front was exactly 100 feet wide.

Independently of the immense treasures con­tained in many of the Greek temples, which were either utensils or ornaments, and of the tithes of spoils, &c. (Herod, vii. 132; Diodor. xi. 3; Polyb. iv. 33), the property of temples, from which they de­rived a regular income, consisted of lands (re^ey??), either fields, pastures, or forests. In Attica we sometimes find that a demos is in possession of the estates of a particular temple: thus the Peiraeeua possessed the lands belonging to the Theseum : in what their right consisted is not known ; but of whatever kind it may have been, the revenues accruing from such property were given to the temples, and served to defray the expenses for sacrifices, the maintenance of the buildings, &c. For this purpose all temple-property was generally let out to farm, unless it was, by some curse which lay on it, prevented from- being taken into culti­vation.. (Harpocrat. s. v. 'att^ ^icrdo){j.dr<av : comp. Isocrat. Areop. 11.) The rent for such sacred domains was, according to Demosthenes (in Eu-bulid. p. 1318), received by the demarch, probably the demarch of the demos by which the sacred domain was occupied ; for in other cases we find that the rents were paid to the authorities en­trusted with the administration of the temples. (Bockh, Staatsh. i. p. 327, £c., ii. p. 339.) The supreme control over all property of temples be­longed to the popular assembly. (Demosth. in Neaer. p. 1380.)

Respecting the persons entrusted with the superintendence, keeping, cleaning, etc., of temples, we scarcely possess any information. [aeditui.] We have mention of persons called KAetSouxot, /cA|j5oirj(Oi, ^eo^uAa/ces, who must have been em­ployed as guards and porters (Aeschyl. Suppl. 294), although it is not certain whether these functions were not performed by priests who were occasionally called by names derived from some particular function. At Olympia </>at8piWcu were appointed who belonged to the family of Pheidias, and had to keep clean the statue of the Olympian Zeus. (Paus. v. 14. § 5.)

Temples at Rome.—In the earliest times there appear to have been very few temples at Rome, and in many spots the worship of a certain divinity had been established from time immemorial, while we hear of the building of a temple for the same divinity at a comparatively late period. Thus the foundation of a temple to the old Italian divinity Satunms, on the capitoline did not take place till'

4 e 4

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