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TEMPLUM.

along each side of it, as represented in the right--liand division of the plan and elevation.

Circular Temples, properly so called, were pro­bably not used by the Greeks in early times. The round buildings of which we have notices were either iftoli or mere monumental edifices. Several round buildings of this kind are mentioned by Pausanias ; such as the tJiolus at Athens, in which there were several small silver statues ; where the Prytaneis sacrificed (Pans. i. 5), and where, ac­cording to Pollux (viii. 155) they also banquetted. There was another tliolus at Epidaurus, in the sa­cred grove of Asclepios, which he describes as well worth seeing: it was built of white marble, after the design of Polycleitus, and adorned on the inside with paintings by Pausias. (Paus. ii. 27.) (See Stieglitz, vol. ii. pp. 38, fol.) Vitruvius (iv. 7) however recognizes two regular forms of circular temples, to which a third rrfust be added.

I. The monopteros consisted of a single circle of columns, standing on a platform (tribunal], the outer wall of which formed a stylobate or conti­nuous pedestal for the columns, and surmounted by a dome ; but without any cella. For the propor­tions see Vitruvius. The remains of such a temple have been found at the ruins of Puteoli.

TEMPLUM,

II. The peripteros had a circular cdla, sur­rounded by a single peristyle of columns, standing on three steps, and the whole surmounted by a dome. Specimens are preserved in the so-called temples of Vesta at Rome (see wood-cut on p. 299) and at Tivoli.

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The proportions of the temples of this form were very carefully regulated. The existing specimens agree in most particulars with the rules laid down by Vitruvius, according to whom the distance of the wall of the cello, from the edge of the substruc­tion was one-fifth of the whole diameter of the sub­struction ; and consequently the diameter of the cella (including its walls) was three-fifths of the whole: the internal diameter of the cella was equal to the height of the columns : the height of the dome was equal to a semi-diameter of the whole building: and the centre of the dome was surmounted by a pyramid (or cone), to support an ornament equal in height to the capitals of the columns. (For a full discussion of the passage, see liirt, Lelire d. Ge-b'dude, pp. 29, 30.)

Both species of round temples are mentioned by Servius (ad A en. ix. 408), who says that they were peculiar to Vesta, Diana, Hercules, and Mercury ; and he distinguishes the Monopteros by the follow­ing description : — tectum sine parietiius columnis subnixum.

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