The Ancient Library

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Ionic Order.



Vitruvius is very difficult, and has been differently explained. (Comp. Stieglitz and Hirt.) The fol­lowing engraving is so constructed as to contain a representation of the three chief forms, real or sup­posed, of the Tuscan temple.

These were the chief normal forms of quadran­gular temples. The variations made upon them, especially by the union of two or more temples in one building, were very numerous. (See Hirt, Stieglitz, and the other authorities.) One form deserves particular notice, inasmuch as it was certainly very ancient, and some writers have supposed that it contained the germs of all the other forms ; this was what Vitruvius called the Tuscan Temple, (Vitruv. iv. 7.) The passage of

The above plan is divided by the lines a, 6, into three portions, by completing each of which, we have three different plans. Thus, if the middle portion be retained as it is, and the part to the right of b be made like that to the left of «, we have one of the supposed forms. Again, if the middle portion, be retained, and the two sides completed on the same plan, namely, like the portion to the left of a, but without the projecting side wall, and with a round column in place of the square pillar which termi­nates it, we have what others suppose to have been the true original form of the Tuscan temple. In either case, the characteristic feature is the union of three ccllae in one temple, dedicated to three associated deities, the middle cella, which (as shown in the figure) was larger than the other two, being assigned to the chief of the three divinities ; as in the great temple on the Capitol, the middle cello, of which was dedicated to Jupiter, the cella on the right side of the middle one to Minerva, and the remaining cella to Juno. Lastly, a later varia­tion of the Tuscan temple, in which its chief pecu­liarity was lost, was made by retaining only the middle cella, and carrying a peristyle of columns

4 b 3

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