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On this page: Templum

1106

••TEMPLUM.

Itimns on the sides. The last arrangement resulted . from the rule adopted by the Roman architects, who counted by intercolumniations (the spaces between the columns), and whose rule wag to have twice as many intercolumniations along the sides of the building as in front; another example of the rule is furnished by the above-mentioned temple ., of Fortuna Virilis, which has four columns in front and, altogether, seven on each side. The Greek architects, on the contrary, counted by columns, and their rule was to have twice as many columns along the sides as in front, and one more*, counting the corner columns in each case : sometimes, how­ever, they followed the other rule, as in the temple at Mylasa, where there are six columns in front .and eleven at each side. Another set of terms, applied to temples and other buildings having por­ticoes, as well as to the porticoes themselves, was derived from the distances between the columns as compared with the lower diameters of the columns. They were the following :— v

1. Hvtcv6(TTv\os\) pycnostyle, the distance be­tween the columns a diameter of a column and half a diameter.

2. 2u(rruAos, systyle, the distance between the columns two diameters of a column.

3. EuoruAos, eustyle, the distance between the columns two diameters and a quarter, except in the centre of the front and back of the building, where each intercolumniation (intercolumnium) was three diameters; called eustyle, because it was best adapted both for beauty and convenience.

4. Aid<TTir\os, diastyle, the intercolumniation, or distance between the columns, three diameters.

5. 'A/mioVruAos, araeostyle, the distances exces­sive, so that it was necessary to make the epistyle ( eTrto-TvAioy), or architrave, not of stone, but of timber. [episttlium.]

These five kinds of intercolumniation are illus­trated by the following diagram : —•

4

or more

The following elevations and plans of temples will aid the reader in understanding the different terms descriptive of the number and arrangement of the columns. They are taken from the plates to Hirt's Geschichte der Baiikunst • and although,

7 o ~

for the Sake of greater clearness and convenience, they are not all taken from actual buildings, but are general representations of each form, yet they are not merely imaginary, for they are founded on a careful comparison of existing remains with the descriptions of Vitruvius.

I. in antis.

An engraving of a temple of this form has been given under antae.

*. The Roman rule might also be stated accord­ing to the number of columns thus :—twice, as many columns along the sides as in front, and one less.

TEMPLUM. II, prostyle, tetrastylb, of the Ionic ordes-

The above engraving exhibits clearly the prodo-mus or pronaos, or space enclosed by the portico and the side walls projecting beyond the front wall; and the cella, with the statue of the god opposite to

the entrance.

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