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TEMPLUM.

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iii. 105.) In some cases the cella was not acces­sible to any human being, and various stories were related of the calamities that had befallen persons

TEMPLUM.

corpses to be buried within the whole extent of trie island (Thucyd. iii. 104 : comp. Herod, i. 64), and when this law had been violated, a part of the island was first purified by Peisistratus, and subse­quently the whole island by the Athenian people.

The temple itself was called *-€a»s, and at its en­trance fonts (Treptppavrripia) were generally placed, that those who entered the sanctuary to pray or to offer sacrifices might first purify themselves. (Pol­lux, i. 10 ; Herod, i. 51.) In the earliest times the Greek temples were either partly or wholly made of wood (Paus. v. 20. § 3 ; 16. § 1, viii. 10. § 2), and the simplest of all appear to have been the tnjKo/, which were probably nothing but hollow trees in which the image of a god or a hero was placed as in a niche (Hesiod. Fragm. 54, ed. Gott-ling ; Schol. ad Soph. Track. 11G9 ); for a temple was originally not intended as a receptacle for wor­shippers, but simply as an habitation for the deity. The act of consecration, by which a temple was dedicated to a god, was called ¥o/>u<m. The cha­racter of the early Greek temples was dark and mysterious, for they had no windows, and they received light through the door, which was very large, or from lamps burning in them. Vitruvius (iv. 5) states that the entrance of Greek temples was always towards the west, but most of the temples still extant in Attica, Ionia, and Sicily have their entrance towards the east. Architecture, however, in the construction of magnificent temples, made great progress even at an earlier time than either painting or statuary, and long before the Persian wars we hear of temples of extraordinary grandeur and beauty. All temples were built either in an oblong or round form, and were mostly adorned with columns. Those of an oblong form had columns either in the front alone, in the fore and back fronts, or on all the four sides. Re­specting the original use of these porticoes see porticus. The classification of temples, according to the number and arrangement of their columns, will be described presently. The friezes and me­topes were adorned with various sculptures, and no expense was spared in embellishing the abodes of the gods. The light which was formerly let in at the door, was now frequently let in from above through an opening in the middle, which was called v-rraiQpov, and a temple thus constructed was called vnaiQpos. (Vitruv. /. c.) Many of the great temples consisted of three parts: 1. the icpovaos or Trp6$ofjLOS) the vestibule ; 2. the cella (Veto*, crr/Kos); and 3. the oVter^doo/tos. The cella was the most important part, as it was, properly speaking, the temple, or the habitation of the deity whose statue it contained. In one and the same cella there were sometimes the statues of two or more divini­ties, as in the Erechtheum at Athens the statues of Poseidon, Hephaestus, and Butas. The statues always faced the entrance, which was in the centre of the prostyhis, or front portico. The place where the •statue stood was called €0*o?, and was surrounded by a balustrade or railings (ftcpja, epy/uara, Pans. v. I ]. § 2). Some temples also had more than one cella, in which case the one was generally behind the other, as in the temple of Athena Polias at Athens. In tem­ples where oracles were given, or where the worship xvas connected with mysteries, the cella was called

V *

d'Syroi/, /jLeyapov. or dvaKropov, and to it only the priests and the initiated had access. (Pollux, i. 9 ; is. ix. 8. § 1, viii. 62 ; 37. § 5 ; Herod, viii. ix. 65 j Plut. Num. 13 ; Caes. de Bell. Civ.

its entrance in the back front of a temple, and served as a place in which the treasures of the temple were kept, and thus supplied the place of the &r)ffavpoi which were attached to some temples. (Compare Mil Her, ArcJtaoL d. Kunst, § 288 ; Stieglitz, Arcli'dol. der Baukunst^ vol. ii. § 1 ; Ilirt, Lelire der Gebaude, § 1 ; JBockh, ad Corp. Inscript. pp. 264, &c.)

We now proceed to describe the classification of temples, both Greek and Roman, the latter being chiefly imitated from the former. They were either quadrangular or circular.

Quadrangular Temples were described by the following terms, according to the number and ar­rangement of the columns on the fronts and sides.

1. "AffTvXos, astyle, without any columns. (Leo-nidas Tarent. in Brunck, AnaL vol. i. p. 237 ; Plin. //. N. xxxiv. 8.)

2. 'Ei/ Trapaa-Tciffi, in antis, with two columns ia front between the antae. (Pind. OL vi. 1.)

3. n/>0(TTuAo?, prostyle, with four columns in front.

4. ^AutynrpoffTvXos, amphiprosiyle, with four columns at each end.

5. fleptTrrepos or dftytKtwv (Soph. Ant. 285), peripteral^ with columns at each end and along each side.

6. Anrrepoy, dipteral, with two ranges of columns repa) all round, the one within the other.

7. 'Vevb'ofit-TrTepos^pseudodipteml, with one range onty, but at the same distance from the walls of the cella as the outer range of a Snrrepos1.

To these must be added a sort of sham invented by the Roman architects, namely:

8. Wevooirepiirrepos, pseudoperipteral (Vitruv. iv. 7), where the sides had only half-columns (at the angles three-quarter columns), attached to the walls of the cella, the object being to have the cella large without enlarging the whole building, and yet to keep up something of the splendour of a peripteral temple.

Names were also applied to the temples, as well as to the porticoes themselves, according to the number of columns in the portico at either end of the temple ; namely, rerpao-TuAos, tetrastyle, when there \vexefour columns in front, efao-TuAoy, hexastyle^ when there were s£r, oKTao-rvAos, octo-style^, when there were eight, detfao-ruAos, decastyle, when there were ten. There were never more than ten columns in the end portico of a temple 4 and when there were only two, they were always arranged in that peculiar form called .in antis (eV irapaarrdfft). The number of columns in the end porticoes was never uneven, but the number along the sides of a temple was generally uneven. The number of the side columns varied: where the end portico was tetrastyle, there were never any columns at the sides, except false ones, attached to the walls, as in the temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome, which has a tetrastyle portico, with a columr. behind each corner column, and then five false columns along each side of the cella: where it was hexastyle or octastyle, there were generally 13 or ] 7 columns at the sides, counting in the corner columns -, sometimes a hexastyle temple had only eleven CO-

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