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TEMPLUM.

piece of land, cut off from common uses, and dedi­cated to a god. In Attica, there appears to have been a considerable quantity of such sacred lands (rejae^r?), which were let out by the state to farm ; and the income arising from them was appropriated to the support of the temples, and the maintenance of public warship. (Xen. Vectiy. iv. 19 ; Harpocrat. s. v. dwo Miff8a}fj.druy j Bockh, Publ. Econ. of 'Athens, p. 303, 2ded.)

TEMO. [aratrum ; currus.]

TEMPLUM is the same word as the Greek re/.iez/os, from re/xj/oj to cut off, for templum, ac-cording to Servius (ad Aen. i. 446), was any place which was circumscribed and separated by the au­gurs from the rest of the land by a certain solemn formula. The technical terms for this act of the augurs are liberare and effuri, and hence a templum itself is a locus liberatus et effatm. A place thus set apart and hallowed by the augurs was always intended to serve religious purposes, but chiefly for taking the auguria,. ('• Templum locus augurii aut ausplcii causa quibusdam conceptis verbis finitus" Varro, de Ling. Lot. vi. p. 81, Bip.) When Varro (de Ling. Lat. v. p. 65, Bip.) says that a, locus ef-fatus was always outside the city, we must remember that this only means outside the pomoerium, for the whole space included within the pomoerium was itself a templum, i. e. a place in which auspices could be taken [pomoerium] ; but when they were to be taken in any place outside the pomoe­rium, it was always necessary for such a place to be first circumscribed and sanctified by the augur (liberare. et effuri}. The place in the heavens within which the observations were to be made was likewise called templum^ as it was marked out and separated from the rest by the staff of the augur. When the augur had defined the templum within which he intended to make his observa­tions, he fixed his tent in it (tabernaculum capere], and this tent was likewise called templum, or more accurately, templum minus. To this minus tern-plum we must refer what Servius (ad A en. iv. 200) and Festus (s. v. minora templa] state, that a tern-plum was enclosed with planks, curtains, &c., at­tached to posts fixed in the ground, and that it had only one door (eocitus]. The place chosen for a iemplum was generally an eminence, and in the city it was the arx, where the fixing of a tent does not appear to have been necessary, because here a place called auguraculum was once for all conse­crated for this purpose, (Paul Diac. s. v. Augura­culum ; comp. Liv. i. 18, iv. 18 ; Cic. de Off. iii. 16.)

Besides this meaning of the word templum in the language of the augurs, it also had that of a temple in the common acceptation. In this case too, however, the sacred precinct within which a temple was built, was always a locus liberatus et effatus by the augurs, that is, a Iemplum or a fanum (Liv. x. 37 ; Varro, de Liny. Lot. v. p. 65, Bip.) ; the consecration was completed by the pontiffs, and not until inauguration and consecra­tion had taken place, could sacra be performed or meetings of the senate be held in it. (Serv. ad Aen, i. 446.) It was necessary then for a temple to be sanctioned by the gods, whose will was ascertained by the augurs, and to be consecrated or dedicated by the will of man (the pontiffs). Where the sanction of the gods had not been obtained, and where the mere act of man had consecrated a place to the gods, such a place was only a sacrum, sacrarium,

TEMPLUM.

or sacelhim. [sacrarium ; sacellum.] Vnrro (ap. Gell.xiv. 1. § 7) justly considers the ceremony performed by the augurs as essential to a temple, as the consecration by the pontiff's took place also in other sanctuaries which were not templa, but mere sacra or aedes sacrae. Thus the sanctuary of Vesta was not a templum but an aedes sacra, and the various curiae (Hostilia, Pompeia, Julia) required to be made templa by the augurs before senatusconsulta could be made in them. In what manner a templum differed from a delubrum is more difficult to decide, and neither the ancient nor mo­dern writers agree in their definitions. Some an­cients believed that delubrum was originally the name given to a place before or at the entrance of a temple, which contained a font or a vessel with water^ by which persons, before entering the temple, performed a symbolic purification (Serv. ad Aen. iv. 56, ii. 225 ; Corn. Pronto, quoted by Dacier on Fest. s. v. Delubrum} ; others state that delubrum was originally the name for a wooden representa­tion of a god (£<yaj>Gj>), which derived its name from; librum (the bark of a tree), which was taken off (delibrare) before the tree was worked into an image of the god, and that hence delubrum was applied to the place where this image was erected. (Fest. s. v. Delubrum ; Massur. Sab. ap. Serv. ad Aen. ii. 225.) Hartung (Die Rel. d. Rom. i. p. 143, &c.) derives the word delubrum from liber (anciently luber), and thinks that it originally meant a locus liberatus, or a place separated by the augur from the profane land, in which an image of a god might be erected, and sacred rites be per­formed. A delubrum would therefore be a sanctuary, whose chief characteristic was its being separated from the profane land. But nothing certain can be said on the subject. (Comp. Macrob. Sat. iii. 4.)

After these preliminary remarks, we shall pro­ceed to give a brief account of the ancient temples, their property, and their ministers, both in Greece and Rome. We must, however, refer our readers for a more detailed description of the architectural structure of ancient temples to other works, such as Stieglitz, ArcJidologie der Baukunst, and others, especially as the structure of the temples varied according to the divinities to whom they were dedicated, and other circumstances.

Temples in Greece. — Temples appear to have existed in Greece from the earliest times. They were separated from the profane land around them (tottos &e§r)\os, or to. j8e§7jAa), because every one was allowed to walk in the latter. (Schal. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 10.) This separation was in early times indicated by very simple means, such as a string or a rope. (Paus. viii. 10. §2.) Subsequently, how­ever, they were surrounded by more efficient fences, or even by a wall (epicos, Trepi6o\os, Herod, yi. 134; Pollux, i. 10 ; Paus. passim}, the entrance to which was decorated, as architecture advanced, with magnificent Propylaea [propylaea], The whole space enclosed in such a irepi&o\os was called re/j-evos, or sometimes tepov (Herod, ix. 36, vi. 19, with Valckenaer's note ; Thucyd. v. 18) ; and con­tained, besides the temple itself, other sacred buildings, and sacred ground planted with groves, &c. Within the precincts of the sacred enclosure no dead were generally allowed to be buried, though there were some exceptions to this rule, and we have instances of persons being buried in or at least near certain temples. The religious laws of the island of Delos did not allow any

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