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object; and, although they adopted into their own language the Greek word plectrum (Ovid. Met. xi. 167—170), they used the Latin pecten to denote the same thing, not because the instrument used in striking the lyre was at all like a comb in shape and appearance, but because it was held in the right hand and inserted between the stamina of the lyre as the comb was between the stamina of the loom. (Virg. Aen. vi. 647; Juv. vi. 290—293; Pers. vi. 2.)

After enumerating those parts of the loom which were necessary to produce even the plainest piece of cloth, it remains to describe the methods of pro­ducing its varieties, and more especially of adding to its value by making it either warmer and s^/ter, or more rich and ornamental. If the object was to produce a checked pattern (scutulis dividers^ Plin. H. N. viii. 48. s. 74 ; Juv. ii. 97), or to weave \vhat we should call a Scotch plaid, the threads of the warp were arranged alternately black and white, or of different colours in a certain series according to the pattern which was to be exhibit­ed. On the other hand, a striped pattern (pa£5co-ro'y, Diod. Sic. v. 30 ; virgata sagula, Virg. Aen. viii. 660) was produced by using a warp of one colour only, but changing at regular intervals the colour of the woof. Of this kind of cloth the Ro­man trabea (Virg. Aen. vii. 188) was an example. Checked and striped goods were, no doubt, in the first instance, produced by combining the natural varieties of wool, white, black, brown, &c. [pal­lium.] The woof also was the medium, through which almost every other diversity of appearance and quality was effected. The warp as mentioned above was generally more twisted, and consequently stronger and firmer than the woof: and with a view to the same object different kinds of wool were spun for the warp and for the woof. The consequence was, that after the piece was woven, the fuller drew out its nap by carding, so as to make it like a soft blanket (Plato, Polit< p. 302) [FuLLo] ; and, when the intention was to guard against the cold, the warp was diminished and the woof or nap (Kpo£, kpokvs} made more abundant in proportion. (Hesiod. Op. et Dies, 537 ; Proclus ad loc.) In this manner they made the soft X\cuva or laena [pallium]. On the other hand a woof of finely twisted thread (tfrpiov} pro­duced a thin kind of cloth, which resembled our buntine (lacernae nimia subteminum tenuitate per-abileS) Amm. Marcell. xiv. 6). Where any kind of cloth was enriched by the admixture of different materials, the richer and more beautiful substance always formed part of the woof. Thus the vestis stibserica, or tramoserica, had the tram of silk. [serjcum.] In other cases it was of gold (Virg. Aen. iii. 483 ; Servius- in loc.) ; of wool dyed with Tyrian purple (Ovid. Met. vi. 578; Tyrio subteg-inine, Tibull. iv. 1. 122 ; -picto subtegmine, Val. Flacc. vi. 228); or of beavers'-wool (vestis. fibrina, Isid. Orig. xix. 22). Hence the epithets (jjoiviKotcpoKos, " having a purple woof" (Pind. 0Lvi. 39,: ed. Bockh ; Schol. in Zoc.), dvOottpoKos, " producing a flowery woof" (FAirip. Hec. 466), xpuo-eoTr/yz/Tfros, "made from bobbins or pens of gold thread" (Eurip. Orest. 829), eim^os, " made with good bobbins" (Eurip. IpJi. in Taur. 814, 1465), Kep/a8i Troz/aAAoycra, "variegating with the comb" (Eurip. Iph. in Taur. 215), &c.

But besides the variety of materials constituting the woof., an endless diversity was effected by the


manner of inserting them into the warp. The terms bilioo and §ifj.iros, the origin of which haa been explained, probably denoted what we call dimity or tweeled cloth, and the Germans zwillich. The poets apply trUix, which in German has be­come drillicli, to a kind of armour, perhaps chain-mail, no doubt resembling the pattern of cloth, which was denoted by the same term. (Virg. Aen. iii. 467, v. 259, vii. 639, xii. 375; Val. Flaccus, iii. 199.) In the preceding figure of the Icelandic loom the three rods with their leashes indicate the arrangement necessary for this texture. All kinds of damask were produced by a very complicated apparatus of the same kind (plurimis liciis), and were therefore called Polymita. (Plin. //. N. viii. 48. s. 74; Mart. xiv. 150.)

The sprigs or other ornaments produced in the texture at regular intervals were called flowers (ctf0?7, Philostr. Imag. ii. 28 ; Spoisa, Horn. II. xxii. 440) or feathers (plumae). Another term, adopted with reference to the same machinery, was e£ijU£-tov or e£a,iuTO!', denoting velvet. In the middle ages it became £a/xi7W, and thus produced the German samm-et.

The Fates are sometimes mentioned by classical writers in a manner very similar to the description of " the Fatal Sisters" above referred to. (Dira sororum licia, Stat. Acliill. i. 520 ; fatorum inex-tricabiliter contorta /z'cz'a, Apul. Met. xi.)

As far as we can form, a judgment from the lan­ guage and descriptions of ancient authors, the pro­ ductions of the loom appear to have fallen in an­ cient times very little, if at all, below the beauty and variety of the damasks, shawls, and tapestry of the present age, and . to have vied with the works of the most celebrated painters, representing first mythological, and afterwards scriptural sub­ jects. In addition to the notices of particular works of this class, contained in the passages and articles which have been already referred to, the following authors may be consulted for accounts of some of the finest specimens of weaving : Euripid. Ion, 190—202,1141—1165 ; Aristot. Mir. Auscult. 99 ; Athen. xii. p. 541 ; Asterii, Homilia de Div. .et Laz.; Theod. Pro.drom. Rliod. et Dos. Amor, ad fin.; Virg. Aen. v. 250—257, Gir. 21—35 ; Ovid. Met. vi. 61—128 ; Stat. Theb. vi. 64, 540—547; Auson. Epig. 26 ; Lamprid. Heliog. 28 ; Claudian, de VL Cons. Honor. 561— bll, in.Stilich. ii. 330— 365. [J. Y.]

TELAMONES. [atl antes.]

TELETAE (reAerai). [HYSTERIA.] . TELO'NES (reAc^s). Most of the taxes at Athens were farmed by private persons, who took upon themselves the task of collecting, and made periodical payments in respect thereof to the state. They were called by the general name of reAawxt, while the farmers of any particular tax were called' ei/coc7T£<}i>cu, irevTyKoffToAoyoi, &c.,as the case might be. The duties were let by auction to the highest bidder. Companies often took them in. the name of one person, who was called dpxdvys or reAwy-apxtfSi and was their representative to the state. Sureties were required of the .farmer for the pay­ment of his dues. The office was frequently under­taken by resident aliens, citizens not liking it, on account of the vexatious proceedings to which it often led. The farmer was armed with consi­derable powers; he carried with him his books, searched for contraband or uncustomed goods, watched the harbour, markets and other places, to

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