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Museum and brought thither from Athens. The lions'-heads upon the third and fourth are per­forated. [antefixa.] The frontons, which were ranged along the cornice at the termination of the rows of joint-tiles, were either painted or sculptured so as to represent leaves, aplustria [aplustre], or masks. The first woodcut shows three examples of such frontons, which belong to the. Elgin collection in the British Museum. They are drawn on a much larger scale than the other objects in the same woodcut. The invention . of these graceful ornaments is ascribed to Dibutades of Corinth. (Plm.H.N. xxxv. 12. s. 43.)

Other highly curious details upon the tiled roofs of Greek temples may be seen in the. Unedited Antiquities of Attica, Lon. 1817.

The same arrangement of tiles which was placed round a temple was also to be found within a house which was formed with an opening in the centre. Hence any person who descended from the roof into the open court or impluvium of a house, was said to pass " through the tiles " (per tegulas, Ter. .JEun. iii. 5. 40 ; compare Gellius, x. 15 ; Sta r£v K€pd/nb)v, St. Luke, v. 19).

Pliny mentions a kind of tiling under the name pavonaceum (H. N. xxxvi. 22. s. 44), so called pro­ bably because the tiles were semicircular at their lower edge, and overlapped one another like the feathers in the train of a peacock. Ancient se­ pulchres and urns, made in the form of small temples [FuNus], often represent very exactly the ap­ pearance of a roof with the above-mentioned va­ rieties in the form of the tiles. [J. Y.]

TEICHOPOEUS (Teixoiroios). Among the various persons to 'whom was entrusted the ma­nagement of public works at Athens (eVio-raTai Srjjuocncoi' €p-ywf), were those whose business it was to build and keep in repair the public walls. It is needless to observe how important to the city of Athens were her walls and fortifications, more especially the long walls, which connected the upper city with the Peiraeeus, and which gave it the advantages of an island. These were maintained at considerable expense. The tgixottoiol appear

to have been elected by xelP°r6l'/ia-> one fr°m eacn tribe, and probably for a year. They were con­ sidered to hold a magisterial office (dpxtf), and in that capacity had an tjye/^ovia Aeschines calls them ^TVLcrrdrai rov epyuv. Funds were put at their disposal, for which they had their treasurer (rctyuas), dependent on the treasurer of the revenue. They were liable to render an account (evOvvf)} of their management of these funds, and also of their general conduct, like other magistrates. The office of reixoiroios has been invested with peculiar interest in modern times, on account of its having been held by Demosthenes, arid its having given occasion to the famous prose­ cution of Ctesiphon, who proposed that Demosthenes should receive the honour of a crown before he had rendered his account according to law. As to the nature of the office, and the laws thereto relating, we may probably rely upon the account given by Aeschines. (Aesch. c. CtesipJi. 55—57, ed. Steph.; Bockh, Pull. Econ. of Athens, pp. 170, 203, 2d ed.) [C.R.K.]

TELA (iVros), a loom. Although weaving was amongst the Greeks and Romans a distinct trade carried on by a separate class of persons (vcpdv-rai, textores and textrices, Unteones)^ who more particu­larly supplied the inhabitants of the towns with



the productions of their skill (Cato, de Re Rust. 135), yet every considerable domestic establish­ment, especially in the country, contained a loom (Cato, de Re Rust. 10,14) together with the whole apparatus necessary for the working of wool (lani-ficium, raAarna, ra\a(Tiovpyia). (Hesiod, Op. et Dies, 779 ; Virg. Georg. i. 285,294.) [calathus.] These occupations were all supposed to be carried on under the protection of Minerva, specially deno­minated 'Epydvrj, who was always regarded in this character as the friend and patroness of industry, sobriety, and female decorum. (Serv. in Virg. Ed. vi. 3.)

When the farm or the palace was sufficiently large to admit of it, a portion of it called the ivt&v (histones, Varro, de Re Rust. i. 2) or teoctrinum, was devoted to this purpose. (Cic. Verr. iv. 26.) The work was there principally carried on by female slaves (quasiilanae, ai epiOoi, Theocrit. xv. 80 ; Horn. Od. i. 356—360, vii. 235, xxi. 350) under the superintendence of the mistress of the house, who herself also together with her daughters took part in the labour, both by instructing beginner^ and by finishing the more tasteful and ornamental parts. (Vitruv. vi. 7. p. 164, ed. Schneider ; Syni-machus, Epist. vi. 40.) But although weaving was employed in providing the ordinary articles of clothing among the Greeks and Romans from the earliest times, yet as an inventive and decorative art, subservient to luxury and refinement, it was almost entirely Oriental. Persia, Babylonia, Egypt, Phoenicia, Phrygia, and Lydia, are all celebrated for the wonderful skill and magnificence displayed in the manufacture of scarfs, shawls, carpets and tapestry. [chlamys, pallium, peplum, tapes.]

Among the peculiarities of Egyptian manners Herodotus (ii. 35 ; compare Athen. ii. p. 48, b) men­tions that weaving was in that country the employ­ment of the male sex. This custom still continues among some Arab and negro tribes. (Welsted, Travels, vol. i. p. 123 ; Prichard, Researches, vol. ii. p. 60, 3d edit.) Throughout Europe, on the other hand, weaving was in the earliest ages the task of women only. The matron, assisted by her daughters, wove clothing for the husband and the sons. (Colum. de Re Rust. xii. Praef. ; Plin. H. N. viii. 48. s. 74 ; Herod, ix. 109.) This domestic custom gives occasion in the works of the epic and tragic poets to some very interesting dinoumens and expressions of affection between near relations. In­deed the recognition, or 'Avayvdpicris, as Aristotle calls it (de Art. Poet. 6. § 18, 14. § 21), often depends on this circumstance. Thus Creusa proves herself to be the mother of Ion (Eurip. Ion, 1416, 1417) by describing the pattern of a shawl which she had made in her youth, and in which she had wrapped her infant son. Iphigenia recognises her brother Orestes on one occasion (Eurip. IpJi. in Taur. 814—817), and Electra recognises him on another (Aeschyl. C/ioeph. 225) by the figured clothing which he wore, and which they had long before woven for him.

Besides the shawls which were frequently given to the temples by private persons, or obtained by commerce with foreign nations, companies or col­leges of females were attached to the more opulent temples for the purpose of furnishing a regular sup­ply. Thus the sixteen women, who lived together in a building destined to their use at Olympia, wove a new shawl every five years to be displayed at the game? which were then celebrated in honour

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