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special signification, meaning probably a coverlet made so large as to hang round the sides of the bed or couch. [J- Y.]
TAPHUS (rajas). [funus, p. 556, a.]
TARENTINI LUDI. [Lum saeculares.]
TARRHUS (raftts). [navis, p. 788, a.]
TAX I ARCH I (T«£i'apxot),were military officers at Athens, who were next in rank to the Strategi. [strategus.] They were ten in number like the Strategi, one for each tribe, and were elected in the same way, namely by xeiporovia,. (Dem. Philip, i. p. 47 ; Pollux, yiii. 87-) In war each commanded the infantry of his own tribe (Dem. in Boeot. p. 999 ; Aesch. de Fals. Leg, p. 333), and they were frequently called to assist the Strategi with their advice at the war-council. (Thucyd. vii. 60.) In peace they assisted the Strategi in levying and enlisting soldiers, as is stated under strategus, and they seem to have also assisted the latter in the discharge of many of their other duties.
The Taxiarchs were so called from their commanding ra£eis, which were the principal divisions of the hoplites in the Athenian army. Each tribe ((puArj) formed a ra|ts, whence we find (j>v\^ used as S3rnonymous with ra£/s. (Lys. in Agorat. pp. 498, 501.) As there were ten tribes, there were consequently in a complete Athenian army ten Ta£eis, but the number of men contained in each would of course vary according to the importance of the war. Among the other Greeks the rd^ts was the name of a much smaller division of troops. The ao'xos among the Athenians was a subdivision of the ra£is, and the Ao%cryoi were probably appointed by the taxiarchs. (Schomann, Ant. Jur. publ. Graze, p. 253, &c.)
TAXIS (rd£is). [taxiarchi.] TECTOR, TECTO'RIUM OPUS. [paries, p. 870, a,]
TEGULA (/cepa^oy, dim. /cepa/xis, Xen. Hellen. vi. 5. § 9), a roofing-tile. Roofing-tiles were originally made, like bricks, of baked clay (yfjs ottt^s). Byzes of Naxos first introduced tiles of marble about the year 620 B. c. (Pans. v. 10. § 2.) Besides the superior beauty and durability of the material, these tiles could be made of a much larger size than those of clay. Consequently, when they were employed in the construction of the greatest temples, such as that of Jupiter at Olympia (Paus. I. c.), the Parthenon at Athens, and the Serapeium at Puteoli, their dimensions were in exact proportion to the other parts of the building ; and the effect of the parallel rows of joint-tiles descending from the ridge to the eaves, and terminated by ornamental frontons, with which the lions'-heads (capita leonina, Vitruv. iii. 5. § 15 ; xo^epcu, Horapoll. Hier. i. 21) over the cornice alternated, was exceedingly grand and beautiful. How highly this invention was prized by the ancients is proved by the attempt of the Roman censor Q. Fulvius Flaccus to despoil the temple of the Lacinian Juno of some of its marble tiles (tegulae marmoreae), in order to adorn another temple which he had vowed to erect in Rome. (Liv. xlii. 4 ; Val. Max. i. 1. § 20.) A still more expensive and magnificent method of roofing consisted in the use of tiles made of bronze and gilt. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 3. s. 18.)
At Rome the houses were originally roofed with shingles, and continued to be so down to the time of the war with Pyrrhus, when tiles began to super-
sede the old roofing material. (Plin. ff.N.xvi. 10. s. 36 ; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. iii. p. 559.) . Tiles were originally made perfectly flat, or with nothing more than the hook or nozle underneath the upper border, which fulfilled the purpose of fixing them upon the rafters. They were afterwards formed with a raised border on each side, as is shown in the annexed woodcut representing the section of four of the tiles remaining at Pompeii.
In order that the lower edge of any tile might overlap the upper edge of that which came next below it, its two sides were made to converge downwards. See the next woodcut representing a tiled roof, from a part of which the joint-tiles are removed in order to show the overlapping and the convergence of the sides. It was evidently necessary to cover the lines of junction between the rows.of flat tiles, and this was done by the use of semicylindrical tiles called imbrices. The above woodcut shows the section of three imbrices found at Pompeii, and indicates their position relatively to the flat tiles. This is also shown in the next woodcut. The roof, by the exact adaptation of
the broad tegulae and the narrow imbrices throughout its whole extent, became like one solid and compact frame-work. (Xen. Mem. iii. 1. § 7 ; con-fringit tegulas imbricesque, Plant. Most. i. 2. 28 ; Plin.//. N. xxxvi. 22. s. 44.) The rows of joint-tiles divided the roof into an equal number of channels, down which the water descended into the gutter (canalis) to be discharged through openings made in the lions'-heads, the position and appearance of which are shown in the woodcuts. The rows of flat tiles terminated in a variously ornamented front, which rose immediately above the cornice, and of which four specimens are shown in the first woodcut. The first and fourth patterns are drawn from tiles found at Pompeii, and the two internal from tiles preserved in the British