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Hapd\ov and tt}s 2aAajuuz/ia?, acted not only as treasurers, but as trierarchs ; the expenses (amount­ing for the two ships together to about sixteen talents) being provided by the state. They were elected by xetporovla (Demosth. c. Mid. 570 ; Pollux, viii. 116.) Other trierarchs had their own private ra^lai, for the keeping of accounts and better dispatch of business. (Bockh, Id. p. 171, &c.; Schbmann, Ant. Jur. publ. Gr. pp. 250, 312.)

The dutiea of the 'EAATjforfytucu are spoken of in a separate article. [hellenotamiae.]

The war fund at Athens (independently of the tribute) was provided from two sources, 1st, the proper-tax [eisphora], and 2dly, the surplus of the yearly revenue, which remained after de­fraying the expenses of the civil administration, raTrepiovra ^prf/mra ttjs SioiK^crews. Of the ten 2>TpaTT)7o}, who were annually elected to preside over the war department, one was called arpar^yos 6 €7rl ttjs Sioi/nytrews, to whom the management of the war fund was entrusted. He had under him a treasurer, called ra/^ias t&v ffrpariutriKwv, who gave out the pay of the troops, and defrayed all other expenses incident to the service. De­mosthenes, perhaps on account of some abuses which had sprung up, recommended that the generals should have nothing to do with the mili­tary fund, but that this should be placed under the care of special officers, ra/j/iai ical drj/jioaioi^ who should be accountable for its proper application : tov fj.zv t&>v xpT)/u.d,Twy \6yov irapa, tovtcw \a/u.§dv€iv, roV fte rwv epywv irapciL tov (rrpctrrjyou. (De Cherson. 101.) The passage just cited con­firms the opinion of those who think that in De­mosth. de Coron. 238, 265, the words 6 Girl t^s SioiK^crews refer to a o-rparyyos so designated, and not to the ra^ias rtfs TrpocroSov. (Schomann, Ant. Jur. publ. Gr. p, 252, n. 7 ; Bockh, Id. p. 168 ; Meier, Att. Proc. p. 105.)

So much of the surplus revenue, as was not re­quired for the purposes of war, was to be paid by the treasurer of the revenue into the Theoric fund ; of which, after the Archonship of Euclides, special managers were created. [theorica.]

Lastly, we have to notice the treasurers of the demi, st^ojz/ Ta,ufaj, and those of the tribes, <puAo>f racial, who had the care of the funds belonging to their respective communities, and performed duties analogous to those of the state treasurers. The demi, as well as the tribes, had their common lands, which were usually let to farm. The rents of these formed the principal part of their revenue. «3?uAapxo<, S^apxoi, and other local functionaries were appointed for various purposes; but with re­spect to their internal economy we have but scanty information. (Schomann, de Comit. pp. 371—378, Ant. Jur. publ.. Gr. pp. 203, 204.) [C. Pv. K.]

TAPES or TAPETE (Noh. Marcell. p. 229, ed. Merceri), Tavrr/s, rdiris^ or dd-rus., dim. da-nidio^ a piece of tapestry, a carpet.

The use of tapestry was in very ancient times characteristic of Oriental rather than of European habits (Athen. ii. p. 48, n.) ; we find that the Asiatics, including the Egyptians and also the Carthaginians, who were of Asiatic origin, excelled in the manufacture of carpets, displayed them on festivals and other public occasions, and gave them as presents to their friends. (Xen. Anab. vii. 3. § 18, 27-) They were nevertheless used by the Greeks as early as the age of Homer (//. xvi. 224, xxiv. 230, 645, Od. iv. 298, vii. 337), and by



some of the later Roman Emperors they were given as presents to the combatants at the Circensian Games. (Sidon. Apoll. Carm. xxiii. 427.) The places most renowned for the manufacture were Babylon (Arrian, Exped. Alex. vi. p. 436, ed. Blanc.; Sidon. Apoll. Epist. ix. 13), Tyre and Sidon (Heliodor. v. p. 252, ed. Commelin.), Sardes (Athen. ii. p. 48, b., vi. p. 255, e., xii, p. 514, c.; Non. Marcell. p. 542), Miletus (Aris-toph. Ran. 542), Alexandria (Plaut. Pseud, i. 2. 13), Carthage (Athen. i. p. 28, a), and Corinth. (Athen. i. p. 27, d.) In reference to the texture, these articles were distinguished into those which were light and thin with but little nap, chiefly made at Sardes and called ^iAorauiSes (Athen. vi. p. 255, e., xii. p. 514, c.; Diog. Laert. v. 72), and those in which the nap (jUaAAos) was more abund­ant, and which were soft and woolly (ouAoi, Horn, //.xvi. 224; paXctKOv 6,01010, Od. iv. 124). The thicker and more expensive kinds (fj.a\\oorol) re­sembled, our baize or drugget, or even our soft and warm blankets, and were of two sorts, viz. those which had the nap on one side only (eVepo'/xccAAoi), and those which had it on both sides, called d/^TccTroi (Athen. v. p. 197, b., vi. p. 255, e.; Diog, Laert. v. 72, 73), amphitapae (Non. Marcell. p, 540 ; Lucil. Sat. i. p. 188, ed. Bip.), or cfyu/HTaTrTjrer (Eustath. in Horn. II. ix. 200), and also d^tpL^aAXot or ampliimalla. (Plin. H. N. viii. 48. s. 73.) In­stead of being always used, like blankets, in single pieces as they came from the loom [pallium], carpets were often sewed together. (Plaut. Stick. ii. 2. 54.) They were frequently of splendid colours, being d}re.d either with the kermes (Hor. Sat. ii. 6. 102—106) or with the murex (dXovpyets^ a\iwop(pvpoi}, and having figures, especially hunt­ing-pieces, woven into them. (Sidon. Apoll. I. c.; Plaut. Pseud, i. 2. 14.) These fine specimens of tapestry were spread upon thrones or chairs, and upon benches, couches, or sofas, at entertainments (Horn. II. ix. 200, Od. xx. 150 ; Virg. Aen. i. 639, G97—700 ; Ovid. Met. xiii. 638 ; Cic. Tusc. v. 21), more especially at the nuptials of persons of dis­tinction. Catullus (Argon. 47—220) represents one to have been so employed, which exhibited the whole story of Theseus and Ariadne. They were even used to sleep upon (Horn. II. x. 156 ; Anac. viii. 1, 2 ; Theocrit. xv. 125 ; Aristoph. Plut. 540 ; Virg. Aen. ix. 325, 358), and for the clothing of horses. (Aen. vii. 277.) The tapestry used to decorate the bier and catafalque at the apotheosis of a Roman Emperor was interwoven with gold. (Herodian, iv. 2, p. 82, ed. Bekker.) The orientals upon occasions of state and ceremony spread carpets both over their floors and upon the ground. (Aeschyl. Agam. 879—936 ; Athen. iv. p. 131, b., xii. p. 514, c.)

Besides the terms which have now been explained, the same articles of domestic furniture had deno­minations arising from the mode of using them, either in the triclinium (tridiniaria Babylonica, Plin. H. N. viii. 48. s. 74) or in the cubiculum (cubicularia polymila, Mart. xiv. 150), and espe­cially from the constant practice of spreading them out (textile stragidum, Cic. Tusc. v. 21. ; stratum, C. Nepos, Ages. viii. 2 ; vestis stragula, Liv. xxxiv. 7 ; Hor. Sat ii. 3. 118 ; <rTpw/u,vai, Pint. Lycurg. p. 86, ed. Steph. ; Athen. iv. p. J42, a., crrp&^aTa^ ii. p. 48, d.), The Greek term peristroma, which was transferred into the Latin (Diog. Laert. I.e. ; Plaut, Stick, ii. 2. 54 ; Cic, Phil. ii. 27), had a

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