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1096

TAMIAS.

of the feast was appointed among the Romans (Hor. (farm. i. 4. 18, ii. 7. 25) [symposium], and hence it was also called Basilicus. (Plant. Cure. ii. 3. 80.) Certain other throws were called by par­ticular names, taken from gods, illustrious men and women, and heroes. Thus the throw, consisting of two aces and two trays, making eight, was de­nominated Stesichorus. When the object was simply to throw the highest numbers, the game was called ir\*iffTo€oXiv$a,. (Pollux, vii. 206, ix. 95,110, 117.) Before a person threw the tali, he often invoked either a god or his mistress. (Plant. Capt. i. 1. 5, Cure. ii. 3. 77—79.) These bones, parked and thrown as above described, were also used in divination. (Sueton. Tiber. 14.) [J. Y.]

TAMIAS (rajUi'as), was a name given to any person who had the care, managing, or dispensing of money, stock, or property of any description, confided to him ; as a steward, butler, housekeeper, fltorehousekeeper, or treasurer. And the word is applied metaphorically in a variety of ways. But the rap'tai, who will fall under our notice in this article, are certain officers entrusted with import­ant duties by the Athenian government;. and more especially the treasurers of the temples and the revenue.

In ancient times every temple of any importance had property belonging to it, besides its furniture and ornaments ; and a treasury where such pro­perty was kept. Lands were attached to the temple, from which rents accrued ; fines were made payable to the god ; trophies and other valuables were dedicated to him by the public ; and various sacred offerings were made by individuals. There was ara/xtas iepwv xpyimdTOM, who, together with eiricrrdrai and teptoTrotoi, had the custody and management of these funds. The wealthiest of all the temples at Athens was that of Athena in the Acropolis, in which were kept the spoils taken from the Persians (to. dpt(7Te?a ttjs 7roA.ecos),' be­sides magnificent statues, painting, and other works of art. (Demosth. c. Timocr. 741.) To the Goddess large fines were specially appropriated by the law or given by decree of the courts or the assembly ; and besides this she. received a tenth of all the fines that went to the state,.a tenth of all confiscations and .prizes taken; in war. Her trea­surers were called racial ttjs, S-eoO, or t&v Trjs &eov, or racial hpwv yjpy\\tv.'Ttov rtfs &eoC, and sometimes simply rc^ucu. (Demosth. c. Androt. 615.) They appear to have existed from an early period. Herodotus (viii. 51, 53) relates that the •racial tov lepov with a few other men awaited the attack of Xerxes upon the Acropolis, and perished in its defence. They were ten in number, chosen annually by lot from the class of Pentacosiome-dimni, and afterwards when the distinction of classes had ceased to exist, from among the wealth­iest of Athenian citizens. (Harpocr. and Suid. s. v. Ta.fj.iat.) The treasurers of the other gods were chosen in like manner; but they, about the 96th Olympiad, where all united into one board, while those of Pallas remained distinct. (Demosth. c. Timocr. 743.) Their treasury, however, was trans­ferred to the same place as that of Athena, viz. to the Opisthodomus of the Parthenon, where were kept not only all the treasures belonging to the temples, but also the state treasure (ocria xpT^ara, as contra-distinguished from fcpa), under the care of the treasurers of Pallas. (Aristoph. Plut. 1194.) All the funds of the state were considered as being

TAMIAS.

in a manner consecrated to Pallas ; while on the other hand the people reserved to themselves the right of making use of the sacred monies, as well as the other property of the temples, if the safety of the state should require it. (Thucyd. ii. 13.) Payments made to the temples were received by the treasurers in the presence of some members of the senate, just as public monies were by the Apodectae ; and then the treasurers became re­sponsible for their safe custody. As to fines see epibole, practores, and on the whole of this subject, -Bockh, PubL Econ. of Atftens, pp. 160 —164.

The treasurer of the revenue, rapta? or 67n-(jieXyrris ttjs Koivfjs TrpocroSou, was a more import­ant personage than those last mentioned. He was not a mere keeper of monies, like them, nor a mere receiver, like the Apodectae ; but a general pay­master, who received through the Apodectae all money which was to be disbursed for the purposes of the administration (except the property-taxes which were paid into the war-office, and the tri­bute from the allies, -which was at first paid to the Hellenotamiae, and afterwards to other persons hereafter mentioned), and then distributed it in such manner as he was required to do by the law ; the surplus (if any) he paid into the war-office or the Theoric fund. A s this person knew all the chan­nels in which the public money had to flow, and exercised a general superintendence over the ex­penditure, he was competent to give advice to the people upon financial measures, with a view to im­prove the revenue, introduce economy, and prevent abuses ; he is sometimes called Tafias tt\s Sjot/c?;-trecus, or 6 evrl ttjs SioiKT/jaeocs^ and may be re­garded as a sort of minister of finance. To him Aristophanes refers in Equit. 947. He was elected by xejporoz/fa, and held his office for four years, but was capable of being re-elected. A law, however, was passed during the administration of Lyeurgus, prohibiting re-election 5 so that Lycur-gus, who is reported to have continued in office for twelve years, must have held it for the last eight years under fictitious names. The power of this officer was by no means free from control ; inasmuch as any individual was at liberty to pro­pose financial measures, or institute criminal pro­ceedings for malversation or waste of the public funds; and there was an dvrrypa^eus ttjs 5ioi/oi-(reus appointed to check the accounts of his supe­rior. Anciently there were persons called Hopiarai who appear to have assisted the racial in some part of their duties. (Bockh, id. 166) [poristae.]

The money disbursed by the treasurer of the revenue was sometimes paid directly to the various persons in the employ of the government, some­times through subordinate pay offices. Many pub­lic functionaries had their own paymasters, who were dependent on the rajaias rtfs TrpotroSou, re­ceiving their funds from him, and then distributing them in their respective departments. Such were the rpir}po7roioi^ rer^oTroiot, dSoTrotoi, rcuppoTroioi, GTrefAe\r]Tal vzwuiuv, who received through their own ra/xiat such sums as they required from time to time for the prosecution of their works. The pay­ment of the judicial fees was made by the Colacretae (KcoAa/cpercu), which, and the providing for the rneals in the Prytaneum, were the only duties that remained to them after the establishment of the Apodectae by Cleisthenes. (Aristoph. Vesp. 695, 724.) The racial of the sacred vessels,

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