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On this page: Talarus – Talassio – Talentum – Talio – Talus

TALUS.

TALUS.

museum at Naples, in which the artist, instead of the sole of a sandal, has made the straps unite in a rosette under the middle of the foot (see the wood­cut), evidently intending by this elegant device to Represent the messenger of the gods as borne through-space without touching the ground.

Besides Mercury the artists of antiquity also represented Perseus as wearing winged sandals (Mon. Matth. iii. 28 ; Inghirami, Vasi Fittoli, i. tav. 70, iv. tav. 166) ; because he put on those of Mercury, when he went on his aerial voyage to the rescue of Andromeda. (Ovid. Met. iv. 665—677; Hes. Scut. 216—220 ; Eratosth. (Mast. 22 ; Hygin. Poet Astron. ii. 12.) The same ap­ pendage was ascribed to Minerva, according to one view of her origin, viz. as the daughter of Pallas. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23 ; Tzetzes, Schol. in Lycopli. 355.) [J. Y.]

TALARUS (rd\apos). [calathus.]

TALASSIO. [matrimonium, p. 743, b.]

TALENTUM. [libra, 2d art. ; pondera ;

NUMMUS.J

TALIO, from Talis, signifies an equivalent, but it is used only in the sense of a punishment or penalty the same in kind and degree as the mis­ chief which the guilty person has done to the body of another. A provision as to Talio occurred in the Twelve Tables: Si membrum rupit ni cum eo pacit talio esto. (Festus, s. v. Talionis.) This pas­ sage does not state what Talio is. Cato as quoted by Priscian (vi. p. 710, Putsch) says: Si quis znembrum rupit aut os fregit, talione proximus cognatus ulciscatur. The law of Talio was probably enforced by the individual or his friends : it is not probable that the penalty was inflicted under a decision of a court of justice. It seems likely that it bore some, analogy to the permission to kill an adulterer and adultress in certain cases, which the Julia Lex confirmed ; and if so, the law would define the circumstances under which an injured person or his cognati might take this talio. The punishment of death for death was talio ; but it is not said that the cognati could inflict death for death. Talio, as a punishment, was a part of the Mosaic law: *' breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth: as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be done to hjm again." (Levit. xxiv. 20 ; Rein, Das CriminalrecJit der Romer, pp. 37,358, 816, 915.) [G. LJ.

TALUS (dcrrpdya\os\ a huckle-bone. The huckle-bones of sheep and goats have often been found in Greek and Roman tombs, both real, and imitated in ivory, bronze, glass, and agate. Those of the antelope (Sop/raSejoi) were sought as objects of elegance and curiosity. (Theoph. Char. 5. ; Athen. v. p. 193, f.) They were used to play with from the earliest times, principally by women and children (Plut. Alcib. p. 350), occasionally by old men. (Gic. de Senect. 16.) A : painting by Alex­ander of Athens, found at Resina, represents two women occupied with this game. One of them, having thrown the bones upwards into the air, has caught three of them on the back of her hand. (Ant. d^Erc. i. tav. 1.) See the following woodcut, and compare the account of the game in Pollux (ix. c. 7). Polygnotus executed a similar work at Delphi, re­presenting the two daughters of Pandarus thus em­ployed (Trai&vcras d<rrpayd\oLs9 Pans. x. 30. § 1). But a much more celebrated production was the .group of two naked boys, executed in bronze by Polycletus, and called \\iQ.Astragalizontes, (Plin.

H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) A fractured marble group of the same kind, preserved in the British Museum, exhibits one of the two boys in the act of biting the arm of his play-fellow so as to present a lively illustration of the account in Homer of the fatal quarrel of Patroclus. (II. xxiii. 87, 88.) To play at this game was sometimes called TrevTaXiOigeiv, because five bones or other objects of a similar kind were employed (Pollux, I. c.) ; and this number is retained among ourselves.

Whilst the tali were without artificial marks, the game was entirely one of skill and in ancient no less than in modern times, it consisted not merely in catching the five bones on the back of the hand as shown in the wood-cut, but in a great variety of exercises requiring quickness, agility, and accuracy of sight. When the sides of the bone were marked with different values, the game became one of chance. [ALEA ; tessera.] The two ends were left blank, because the bone could not rest upon either of them on. account of its curvature. The four remaining sides were marked with the numbers 1, 3, 4, 6 ; 1 and 6 being on two oppo­site sides, and 3 and 4 on the other two opposite sides. The Greek and Latin names of the num­bers were as follows (Pollux, I.e.; Eustath. in Horn. II. xxiii. 88 ; Sueton. August. 71 ; Mart, xiii. 1. 6) : — 1. 'Moy&s9 efy, Ki5wv, X?0y (Brunck, Anal. i. 35, 242) ; Ion. Owy: Unio, Vulturius9 canis (Propert. iv. 9. 17; Ovid. Art. Amat. ii. 205, Fast. ii. 473) : 3. Tptds : Ternio ; 4. Tetpa's: Quaternio ; 6. 'E£cfcs, elmjs, Kwo? : Senio.

As the bone is broader in one direction than in the other, it was said to fall upright or prone (opQos r) irpir)vJis9 redus aut promts), according as it rested on the narrow or the broad side. (Plut. Sympos. Prob. p. 1209, ed. Steph. ; Cic. de Fin, iii. 16.)

Two persons played together at this game, using four bones, which they threw up into the air, or emptied out of a , dice-box [fritillus], and ob­serving the numbers on the. uppermost sides. The numbers on the four sides of the four bones admitted of thirty-five different combinations. The lowest throw of all was four aces ( jacii voltorios quatuor, Plaut. Cure. ii. 3. 78). But .the value of a throw ($oAoy, jaotzts^) was not in all cases the sum of the four numbers turned up. The highest in value was that called Venus, or jactus Venereus (Plaut. Asin. v. 2. 55 j .Cic. de Div. ii. 59 ; Sueton. I. c.), in which the numbers cast up were all different (Mart. xiv. 14), the sum of them being only four­teen. It was by obtaining this throw that the king

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