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same Scopas as the one mentioned by Aelian ( V. H. xii. 1) as a contemporary of Cyrus the younger. When Thessaly was not united under the govern­ment of a tagus the subject towns possessed more independence. (Xenoph. Hell. vi. 1. § 9.) In later times some states called their ordinary magistrates rayol (Bockh, Corp. Liscr. n. 1770), which may have been done however, as Hermann suggests, only out of affectation.

Thessaly however was hardly ever united under one government. The different cities administered their own affairs independent of one another, though the smaller towns seem to have frequently "been under the influence of the more important ones (twv ^| v^&v (to?j/ 4?ap<raAiGOj/) ^tti^vmv 7nfAewj>, Xenoph. Hell. vi. 1. § 8). In almost all the cities the form of government was aristocratical (SuracTTeja /na\\ov rj lcrovo/ €XP&vro r° Gjx^p^f oi ©ea-traAoi,' Thucyd. iv. 78), and it was chiefly in the hands of a few great families, who were descended from the ancient kings. Thus Larissa was subject to the Aleuadae, whence Herodotus (vii. 6) calls them kings of Thessaly ; Cranon or Crannon to the Scopadae, and Pharsalus to the Creondae. (Compare Theocr. xvi. -34, &c.) These nobles had vast estates cultivated by the Penestae ; they were celebrated for their hospitality and lived in a princely manner ((/>iAo|e;/o9 re /cat /j.eya\o-irpeTrrjs rov &erra\LK^v rpoTiw, Xenoph. Hell. vi. 1. § 3), and they attracted to their courts many of the poets and artists of southern Greece. The Thessalian commonalty did not however submit quietly to the exclusive rule of the nobles. Con­tests between the two classes seem to have arisen early, and the conjecture of Thirl wall (vol. i. p. 438), that the election of a tagus, like that of a dic­tator at Rome, was sometimes used as an expedient for keeping the commonalty under, appears very probable. At Larissa the Aleuadae made some con­cessions to the popular party. Aristotle (Pol. v. 5) speaks, though we do not know at what time he refers to, of certain magistrates at Larissa, who bore the name of TroAiTo^uAa/ces, who exercised a superintendence over the admission of freemen, and were elected themselves out of the body of the people^ whence they were led to court the people in a way unfavourable to the interests of the aris­tocracy. There were also other magistrates at Larissa of a democratical kind, called AapicnroTroioi. (Aristot. Pol. iii. 1.) Besides the contests between the oligarchical and democratical parties, there were feuds among the oligarchs themselves ; and such was the state of parties at Larissa under the government of the Aleuadae two generations be­fore the Persian >vvar, that a magistrate was chosen by mutual consent, perhaps from the commonalty, to mediate between the, parties (apx^v ^eo-fSios, Aristot. Pol. v. 5). At Pharsalus too at the close of the Peloponnesian war the state was torn asun­der by intestine commotions, and for the sake of quiet and security the citizens entrusted the acro­polis and the whole direction of the government to Polydamas, who discharged his trust with the strictest integrity. (Xenoph. Hell. vi. 1. § 2, 3.)

The power of the aristocratical families however seems to have continued with little diminution till towards the close of the Peloponnesian war, when decided democratical movements first begin to ap­pear. At this time the Aleuadae and the Scopadae had lost much of their ancient influence. Pherae and Pharsalus then became the two leading states


in Thessaly. At Pherae a tyranny, probably arising from a democracy, was established by Lycophron, who opposed the great aristocratical families, and aimed at the dominion of all Thessaly. (Xenoph. Hell. ii. 3. § 4 ; ^Diod. xiv. 82.) The latter ob­ject was accomplished by Jason, the successor and probably the son of Lycophron, who effected an alliance with Polydamas of Pharsalus, and caused himself to be elected tagus about B. c. 374. While he lived the whole of Thessaly was united as one political power, but after his murder in b.c. 370 his family was torn asunder by intestine discords and did not long maintain its dominion. The office of tagus became a tyranny under his succes­sors, Polydorus, Polyphron, Alexander, Tisiphonus, and Lycophron ; till at length the old aristocratical families called in the assistance of Philip of Mace­donia, who deprived Lycophron of his power in b. c. 353, and restored the ancient government in the different towns. At Pherae he is said to have restored popular or at least republican government. (Diod. xvi. 38.) The country however only changed masters ; for a few years later (b. c. 344) he made it completely subject to Macedonia by placing at the head of the four divisions of the country, te-trarchies or tetradarchies, which he re-established, governors devoted to his interests and probably members of the ancient noble families, who had now become little better than his vassals. (Dem. Philip, ii. p. 71, iii. p. 117; Harpocrat. s. v.) Thessaly from this time remained in a state of de­pendence on the Macedonian kings (Polyb. iv. 76), till the victory of T. Flaminius at Cynoscephalae in b. c. 197 again gave them a show of independence under the protection of the Romans. (Liv. xxxiii. 34, xxxiv. 51, Polyb. xviii. 30.)

(Buttmann, Mythologus, No. xxii. Von dem Gesclilecht der A leuaden; Voemel, de Thessaliae Incolis antiqu. Frankf. 1829 ; Horn, de Thessalia Macedonian imperio subjecta, Gryphiae, 1829 ; Tittmann, Darstellung d. Griech. Staatsverf. p. 713, &c. ; Schb'mann, Antiq. Juris publ. Graec. p. 401, &c.; Hermann, LeltrbucJi d. griecU. Staatsalt. § 178.)


TALARIA, small wings, fixed to the ancles of Mercury and reckoned among his attributes. (WStAa, Athen. xii. p. 537, f. ; Trr^i/OTreSiAo?, Orph. Hymn, xxvii. 4 ; Ovid. Met. ii. 736 ; Fulgent. Mytliol. i.) Jn many works of ancient art they are represented growing from his ancles, as if they were a part of his bodily frame ; but more fre­quently they are attached to him as a part of his dress, agreeably to the description of the poets (Horn. II. xxiv. 340, Od, v. 44 ; Virg. Aen. iv. 239) ; and this is commonly done by representing him with sandals, which have wings fastened to them, on each side over the ancles. But there is a most beautiful bronze statue of this divinity in the

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