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TAGUS.

bulae Censoriae, registers of births, deaths, of the names of those who assumed the toga virilis, &c. (See Abram. ad Cic. Mil. 27.) There were various tabularia at Rome, all of which were in temples ; we find mention made of tabularia in the temples of the Nymphs (Cic. pro, Mil. 27),. of Lucina, of Juventus, of Libitina, of Ceres, and more especially in that of Saturn, which was also the public trea­sury. (Servius, ad Virg. Georg. ii. 502 ; Capitol. M. Anton. Phil. 9.) [aerarium..]

A tabularium was also called by other names, as Grammatopliylacium, Archium, or Ardiivum. (Dig. 48. tit 19. s. 9.) In a private house the name of Tablinum was given to the place where the family records and archives were kept. [domus, p. 428, a.]

TAEDA or TEDA (M's, Ait. $$s, dim. 5oc5£o*>), a light of fir-wood, called on this account pinea taeda. (Catull. lix. 15 ; Ovid. Fast. ii. 558.) Be­fore the adoption of the more artificial modes of obtaining light, described under candela, fax, funale, and lucerna, the inhabitants of Greece and Asia Minor practised the following method, which still prevails in - those countries, and to a certain extent in Scotland and Ireland, as. well as in other parts of Europe, which abound in forests of pines. (Fellows, Eocc. in Asia Minor, pp. 140, 333—335.) A tree having been selected of the species Pinus Maritima, Linn., which, was called TreytfT? by the ancient Greeks from the time of Homer (II. xi. 494, xxiii. 328),,and which retains this name, with a slight change in its termination, to the present day, a large incision was made near its root, causing the turpentine to flow so as to ac­cumulate in its vicinity. This highly resinous wood was called Sot?, i. e. torch-wood ; a tree so treated was called ej/SaS.os, the process itself ei/8a-fiovv or o'q.o'ovpyeiv, and the workmen employed in the manufacture, SySovpyoi. After the lapse of twelve months the portion thus impregnated was cut out and divided into suitable lengths. This was repeated for three successive years, and then, as the tree began to decay, the heart of the trunk was extracted, and the roots were dug up for the same purpose. (Theophrast. H. P. i. 6. § ], iii. 9. § 3, 5, iv. 16. § 1, x. 2, § 2, 3 ; Athen. xv. 700, f.) These strips of resinous pinewood are now called SaStcc by the Greeks of Mount Ida. (Hunt and Sib thorp, in Walpole's Mem. pp. 120, 235.)

When persons went out at night, they took these lights in their hands (Aristoph. Eocies. 688, 970), more particularly in a nuptial procession. (Horn. II. xviii. 492 ; Hes. Scut. 275 ; Aris-toph. Pax, 1317 ; Ovid. Met. iv. 326 ; Fast. vi. 223.) Hence taedae felices signified "a happy marriage" (Catull. 61. 25 ; compare Prudent, c. Symm. ii. 165) ; and these lights, no less than proper torches, are at­ tributed to Love and Hymen. (Ovid. Met. iv. 758.) [J. Y.]

TAENIA. [vitta ; stro.phium.]

TAG US (toljos), a leader or general, was more especially the name of the military leader of the Thessalians. Under this /head it is proposed to give a short account of the Thessalian constitu­tion.

The Thessalians were a Thesprotian tribe (Herod, vii. 176; Veil. Pat. i. 3), and originally came from the Thesprotian Ephyra. Under the guid­ance of leaders, who are said to have been descend­ants of Hercules, they invaded the western part

TAGUS. 1093

of the country afterwards called Thessaly, and drove out or reduced to the condition of Penestae or bondsmen the ancient Aeolian inhabitants (rty Tore pel/ Alo\lda vvv 5e ®.&rraXia.v KoAoujUeV??*', Diod. iv. 57). The Thessalians afterwards spread over the other parts of the country, and took pos­session of the most fertile districts, and compelled the Peraebi, Magnetes, Achaean Phthiotae, and other neighbouring people to submit to their autho­rity and to pay them tribute. (Thucyd. ii. 101, iv. 78, viii. 3,; Aristot. Pol. ii. 6.) The popula­tion of Thessaly therefore consisted, like that of Laconica, of three distinct classes. ]. The Penes­tae, whose condition was nearly the same as that of the Helots. [penestae.] 2. The subject people, who inhabited the districts which were not occupied by the Thessalian invaders. They paid tribute, as stated above, but were personally free, though they had no share in the government. They corresponded to the Perioeci of Laconica, by which name they are called by Xenophon. (Hell. vi. 1. § 19.) [perioeci.] 3. The Thessalian conquerors, who alone had any share in the public administration, and whose lands were cultivated by the Penestae.

For some time after the con quest Thessaly seems to have been governed by kings of the race of Her­cules, who may however have been only,the heads of the great aristocratica! families, invested with the supreme power for a certain time. Under one of these princes, named Aleuas, the country was divided into four districts, Phthiotis, Plistiaeotis, Thessaliotis, and Pelasgiotis. (Aristot. ap. Harpo-crat. s. v. Terpapxta: Strab. ix. p. 430.): This division continued till the latest times of Thessalian history, and we may therefore conclude that it was not merely a nominal one. Each district may per­haps have regulated its affairs by some kind of pro­vincial council, but respecting the internal govern­ment of each we are almost entirely in the dark. (Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 437.)

When occasion required, a chief magistrate was elected under the name of Tagus (ray6s), whose commands were obeyed by all the four districts. He is sometimes called king ((Sacri\evs, Herod, v. 63), and sometimes apxos- (Dionys. v. 74.) His command was of a military rather than of a ciy.il nature, and he seems only to have been appointed when there was a war or one was apprehended. Pollux (i. 128) accordingly in his list of.military designations classes together the Boeotarchs of the Thebans, the King of the Lacedaemonians, the Polemarch of the Athenians, (in reference to his original duties), and the Tagus of the Thessalians. We do not know the extent of the power which the Tagus, possessed.- constitutionally, nor the. time for which he held, tjhe office ; probably^neither was precisely fixed, and depended on the circumstances of the times and the character of the individual. (Thirlwall, vol. i. p. 438.) He levied soldiers from the states in each district, and seems to have fixed the amount of tribute to be paid by the allies. (Xenoph. Hell. vi. 1. § 19.) When Jason was tagus he had an army of more than 8000 cavalry and not less than 20,000 hoplites (Xenoph../. c.), and Jason himself says that when Thessaly is under a tagus, there is an army of 6000 cavalry and 10,000 hoplites. (Id. vi. 1. § 8,) The tribute which Jason levied from the subject towns was the same as had been previously paid by one of the Scopadae, whom Buttmann supposes to be the

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