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SYNOIKIA.

particular form of words was necessary to make the instrument valid in point of law, the sole object being to furnish good evidence of the parties' in­tention. The agreement itself was valid without any writing ; and would form the ground of an ac­tion against the party who broke it, if it could be sufficiently proved. Hence it was the practice to have witnesses to a parol agreement. The law de­clared fcvpias eivai to.s Trpbs aAArjAous 6fJLO\oyias^ &s &^ Ivavrtot lAaprvpwv ttoitjo'wj/tcu. (Demosth. c. Phaenipp. 1042, c. Euerg. et Mnes. 1 1 62, c. Dionys. 1283, c. Onetor. 869.) It seems that for the main­tenance of an eyUTropiKTj siktj it was necessary to have a written contract. (Demosth. c. Zenotli. 882.)

Bankers were persons of extensive credit, and had peculiar confidence reposed in them. They were often chosen as the depositaries of agree­ments and other documents. Money was put into their hands without any acknowledgment, and often without witnesses. They entered these and also the loans made by themselves to others in their books, making memoranda (uTro^uz/T/jUara) of any important particulars. Such entries were re­garded as strong evidence in courts of justice. Sureties were usually required by them on making loans. (Isocr. Trapez. 369, ed. Steph. ; Demosth. c. Apat. 894, pro Phorm. 950, 958, c. Timoth. 1185, c. Pkorm. 908 j Bockh, Pull. Econ. of Athens, p. 128, 2d ed.) '

^vyypa(p7] denotes an instrument signed by both or all the contracting parties. Xeipoypatyov is a mere acknowledgment by one party, 3vyypdtyaa6ai ffvyypatyfyv or (TvvQ^K^v is to draw up the contract, (rrj/i^vao'OaL to seal it, avatpeiv to cancel, dz/eAeV0ai to take it up from the person with whom it was deposited, for the purpose of cancelling, when it was no longer of any use. 'Trravoiysii', to break the seal clandestinely for some fraudulent purpose, as to alter the terms of the instrument, or erase or destroy some material part, or even the whole, thereof (yuercrypa^eo' or 5ia<p6eipfii'). [symbo-

LAEON.] [C. R. K.]

SYNOIKIA (crvvoiiuct, or dwoiKeVta), a fes­ tival celebrated every year at Athens on the 1 6th of Hecatombaeon in honour of Athena. It was believed to have been instituted by Theseus to commemorate the concentration of the government of the various towns of Attica and Athens. (Thucyd. iii. 15 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. sA07jj/cu.) According to the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Pax, 962) an unbloody sacrifice was on this day offered to the goddess of peace (elprjz'?]). This festival, which Plutarch (Thes. 24) calls /xerouaa, is men­ tioned both by him and by Thucydides as still held in their days. (Compare Meyer, de Bon. damnat. p. 120.) f [L. S.]

oirov 5' els e

SYNOIKIA (crwot/aa) differs from olxia in this : that the latter is a dwelling-house for a single family : the former adapted to hold several families, a lodging-house, insula, as the Romans would say. The distinction is thus expressed by Aeschines (c. Timarch. 17, ed. Steph.) : ottov ^l yap TroAAoi fJUcrOcoffd^evoi piay oticycrtj/

e%ou<n, ffvvoiKiav

There was a great deal of speculation in the building and letting of houses at Athens. (Xe-noph. Occon. iii. 1.), The lodging-houses were let mostly to foreigners who came to Athens on busi­ness, and especially to the /j-gtoikoi, whom the law did not allow to acquire real property, and who

1087

SYNTPIESIS.

therefore could' not purchase houses of their own. (Demosth. pro Phorm. 946.) As they, with their families, formed a population of about 45,000., the number of avvoiKiai must have been considerable. Pasion, the banker, had a lodging-house valued at 100 minas. Xenophon recommended that the /j.stoikoi should be encouraged to invest their money in houses, and that leave should be granted to the most respectable to build and become house - proprietors (o£/co8o,u?7(ra/u,eVois eyKe/crTjcrflcu, de Vectig. ii. 6.) The iVoreAe?? laboured under no such disability; for Lysias and his brother Pole- marchus, who belonged to that class,, were the owners of three houses. The value of houses must have varied according to the size, the build, the situation, and other circumstances. Those in the city were more valuable than those in the Peiraeeua or the country, caeteris paribus. Two counting- houses are mentioned by Isaeus (de Hagn. her. 88, ed. Steph.) as yielding a return of rather more than 8-i per cent, interest on the purchase-money. But this probably was much below the average. The summer season was the most profitable for the letting of houses, when merchants and other visitors flocked to Athens. The rent was com­ monly paid by the month. Lodging-houses were frequently taken on speculation by persons called vavK\t]poi or (rrafytouxo/, who made a profit by underletting them, and sometimes for not very reputable purposes. (Isaeus, do Philoct. her. 58, ed. Steph.) Hesychius explains th«? \vord vavitXt]- pos, 6 (rvvoiKias Trpoecrrcas: see also Harpocration, s. v. Some derive the word from vaioo : but it is more probable that it was given as a sort of nick­ name to the class, when they first sprang up. (See Stephan. Thesaur. 6608 ; Reiske, Index in Or. Att. s. v. 2vvoitda : Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens ^ pp. 65, 141, 2d ed.) [C. R. K.]

SYNTAGMA (ffvvrayiJ.cC). [exercitus, p. 488, a.]

SYNTAXEIS (avvrd&is). [synedrl] SYNTELEIA (truz/reAeia). [trierarchia.] SYNTHE'CE (ow0^/«j). [symbolaeon.] SY'NTHESIS, a garment frequently worn at dinner, and sometimes also on other occasions. As it was inconvenient to wear the toga at table on account of its-many folds, it was customary to have dresses especially appropriated to this purpose, called vestes coenatoriae^ or coenatoria (Mart. x. 87. 12, xiv. 135 ; Petr. 21), accubitoria (Petr. 30), or Syntheses. The Synthesis is commonly explained to be a loose kind of robe, like the Pallium; but Becker (Gallus, vol. i. p. 37) supposes from a com­parison of a passage of Dion Cassius (Ixiii. 13) with one of Suetonius (Ner. 51) describing the dress of Nero, that it must have been a kind of tunic, an indumentum rather than an amictus. [AivncTus.] That it was, however, an easy and comfortable kind of dress, as we should say. seems to be evident from its use at table above mentioned, and also from its being worn by all classes at the satur­nalia, a season of universal relaxation and enjoy­ment. (Mart. xiv. 1, 141, vi. 24.) More than this respecting its form we cannot say : it was usually dyed with some colour (Mart. ii. 46, x. 29), and was not white like the toga.

The word Synthesis is also applied to a set of wearing apparel or a complete wardrobe. (Dig. 34. tit. 3, s. 38.) This use of the word agrees better with its etymology (ffvvQeffis^ ffwriQ^C) than the one mentioned above. (Becker, /. c.)

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