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and would in short have the same rights and liabi­lities ; the elder of the two only having priority in certain matters of form,.such as the TrpwroXoyia. (Argum. Or. Dem. c. Androt. 592.) In the pro­ceeding against the law of Leptines there were two prosecutors, Aphepsion and Ctesippus the son of Chabrias ; each addressed the court, Aphepsion first, as being the elder ; each had his advocate, the one Phormio, the other Demosthenes, who tells us in the exordium that he had undertaken to speak, partly from a conviction of the impolicy of the law, and partly to oblige the son of Chabrias, who would have been deprived of certain privileges inherited from his father, if the law had taken ef­fect. (See Argum. 453.)

There seems to have been no law which limited the number of persons who might appear as advo­cates, either in public or private causes. There was however this practical limitation, that as the time allowed for speaking to either party was mea­sured by the clepsydra, if either chose to em­ploy a friend to speak for him, he subtracted so much from the length of his own speech as he meant to leave for that of his friend, and the whole time allowed was precisely the same, whatever the number of persons who spoke on one side. Both parties were usually allowed to make two speeches, the plaintiff beginning, the defendant following, then the plaintiff replying, and lastly the defendant again. These are often called Xoyoi TrpoVepo: and ucrrepoi respectively, but are not to be confounded with the (Twrjyopiai or SeurepoAoyi'cu, which might, and usually did, immediately follow the speech of the party in whose favour they were made, though as a matter of arrangement it might be convenient sometimes to reserve the speech of the advocate for the reply, in which case the crvvtiyopiKbs \6yos and the vcrrepos X6yos would be the same. (Schomann, Alt. Proc. pp. 707—712, 715 ; Platner,Proc. und Klag. vol. i. p. 91.)

With respect to the custom of producing friends to speak in mitigation of damages or punishment, see timema. As to the public advocates ap­pointed to defend the old laws before the Court of Ileliasts, see syndicus, nomothetes.

The fee of a drachm (to ffvvf]yopiK.6v} mentioned by Aristophanes (Vespcte, 691) was probably the sum paid to the public advocate whenever he was employed on behalf of the state. It has been shown clearly by Schomann, that Petit was wrong in supposing that the orators or statesmen who spoke in the assembly are called (rvvyyopoi. They are always distinguished by the title of p^Topes or S^jtu^opot, or if they possessed much influence with the people, SyfJiaycayoi: and it is not to be sup­posed that they constituted a distinct class of persons, inasmuch as any Athenian citizen was at liberty to address the assembly when he pleased ; though, as it was found in practice that the posses­sion of the firj^a was confined to a few persons who were best fitted for it by their talent and experi­ence, such persons acquired the title of gropes, &c. (De Comit, pp. 107—109, 210.) There appears however to have been (at least at one period) a regular appointment of crvvriyopoi, ten in number, with whom the Scholiast on Aristophanes (/. c.) confounded the pi?Topes or orators. For what pur­pose such ten ffw^yopoi were appointed, is a matter about which we have no certain information. Some think they were officers connected with the board of Scrutators who audited magistrates1 accounts.


Aristotle '(Polit. vi. 8) says the authorities to whom magistrates rendered their accounts were called in some of the Greek states cvQwoi, in others XoyKrrat, in others <rvy}]yopoi or e^eTacrrcu, and the author of the Lexicon Rhetoricum, published by Bekker (Anccd. i. 301), says that the Synegori were apxovres KXripwrol ot e§o'f)Qovv tols \oyi(TTcut ?rpbs ras evOvvas. But what sort of assistance did they render ? Is it not probable that they per­ formed the duty which their name imports, viz. that of prosecuting such magistrates as, in the opi­ nion of the Logistae, had rendered an unsatisfactory account ? Any individual, indeed, might prefer charges against a magistrate when the time for rendering his account had arrived ; but the prose­ cution by a ffvviiyopos would be ail esc officio proceeding, such as the Logistae were bound to institute, if they had any reason to suspect the accounting party of malversation or misconduct. If this conjecture be well-founded, it is not unrea­ sonable to suppose that these ten ffvvfiyopoi were no other than the public advocates who were em­ ployed to conduct state prosecutions of a different kind. They might be appointed annually, either by lot or by election (according to Harpocration, s. v. ^w^yopos). Their duties would be only occasional, and they would receive a drachm as their fee whenever they were employed. Bb'cklrs conjecture, that they received a drachm a day for every day of business, is without much founda­ tion. [C. R. K.]

SYNGENEIA (ffvyyweia). [herbs, p. 595, b.]

SYNGRAPHE (o-vyypa^-f]}^ signifies a written contract; whereas avvQ^Kt] and trv/xgoAcuoj/ do not necessarily import that the contract is in writing ; and 6/j.o\oyia is, strictly speaking, a verbal agree­ment. Pollux explains the word, rrvvd-fjitT] ey-7pa<pos-, 6/j.o\oyia eyypatyos (viii. 140).

At Athens important contracts were usually re­duced to writing ; such as leases (/u/<r0w0'eis), loans of money, and all executory agreements., where cer­tain conditions were to be performed. The rent, the rate of interest, with other conditions, and also the penalties for breach of contract (e7rm,tua to, e/c rr)s ffvyypacb^s) were particularly mentioned. The names of the witnesses and the sureties (if any) were specified. The whole was contained in a little tablet of wax or wood (/3i§Afoj/or ypa^oLT^lov^ sometimes double, $'nrrwxpv\ which was sealed, and deposited with some third person, mutually agreed on between the parties. (Isocrat. Trapez. 362, ed. Steph. ; Demos, c. Apat. 903, 904, c. Dionysod. 1283.) An example of a contract on a bottomry loan (vclvtik^ crvyypaty-f]) will be found in Demosth. c. Lacrit. 926, where the terms are carefully drawn up, and there is a declaration at the end, Kvpuarepov 5e Trzpl tovtuv aAAo /xT/Sei/ zlvai rris ffvyypa^s^ " which agreement shall be valid, anything to the contrary notwithstanding."

Anything might form the subject of a written contract — a release (&(pe<m), a settlement of dis­putes (SiaAffTis), the giving up of a slave to be ex­amined by torture, or any other accepted challenge (Trp6K\r)(ns) ; in short, any matter wherein the contracting parties thought it safer to have docu­mentary evidence of the terms. 5E/c5i5oV«f cb/-SpiavTa. Kara avyypatyfyv is, to give an order for the making of a statue of certain dimensions, of a certain fashion, at a certain price, &c., as specified in the agreement. (Demosth. cle Cor. 268.) No

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