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On this page: Synallagma – Syndicus – Synedri – Synegoricon – Synegorus



Respecting the games and amusements by which the Symposia were enlivened, it is unnecessary to say much here, as most of them are described in separate articles in this work. Enigmas or riddles (cuVfy/xara or ypfyot) were among the most usual and favourite modes of diversion. [aenigma.] The Cottabos was also another favourite game at Symposia, and was played at in various ways. [cottabos.] The other games at Symposia, which require mention, are, the cLffrpa.ya\ia^6s explained under tali and tesserae, the spoken of under latbunculi, and the The latter consisted in turning round a piece of money placed upright on its edges, and causing it suddenly to stop while moving by placing a finger on its top. (Pollux, ix. 118 ; Eustath. ad It. xiv. 291, p. 986.)

A drinking-party among the Romans was some­times called Convivium, but the word Comissatio more nearly corresponds to the Greek crujUTr^jrto^. [comissatio.] The Romans, however, usually drank during their dinner (coena), which they fre­quently prolonged during many hours in the later times of the republic and under the empire. Their customs connected with drinking differed little from those of the Greeks, and have been incident­ally noticed above.

The preceding account has been mainly com­posed from Becker's Chariklcs (vol. i. p. 451, &c.) and Gallus (vol. ii. p. 235, &c.), where the sub­ject is treated at length.

SYNALLAGMA (owrfAAayjua). [symbo-


SYNDICUS (<nV8iKos), an advocate, is fre­quently used as synonymous with the word ffvvfi-7opos, to denote any one who pleads the cause of another, whether in a court of justice or elsewhere. Sui/Sf/cetV also is used indifferently with awrjyope'tv or (rvvayavi&ffQai. (Andoc. de Myst. 19, ed. Steph. ; Demosth. c. Aristocr. 689, c. Zenotli. 885, c. Steph. 1127.) Thus, the five public advocates, •who were appointed to defend the ancient laws before the Court of Heliasts, when an amendment or a new law in abrogation thereof was proposed, are called both ctv^lkol and vwhyopoi. As to them, see nomothetes and also Schomann, de Comit. p. 255, Ant. Jur. Pull. Gr. p. 228. The name of avvfiiKoi seems to have been peculiarly applied to those orators who were sent by the state to plead the cause of their countrymen before a foreign tribunal. Aeschines, for example, was ap­pointed to plead before the Amphictyonic council on the subject of the Delian temple ; but a certain discovery having been made not very creditable to his patriotism, the court of Areiopagus took upon themselves to remove him, and appoint Hyperides in his stead. (Demosth. de Coron. 271, 272.) These extraordinary advocates are not to be con­founded with the Pylagorae, or ordinary Am­phictyonic deputies. (Schomann, de Comit. p. 321, Ant. Jur. PM. Gr. p. 257.) There were other ffvvSiKoi, who acted rather as magistrates or judges than as advocates, though they probably derived their name from the circumstance of their being appointed to protect the interests of the state. These were extraordinary functionaries, created from time to time, to exercise a jurisdiction in dis­putes concerning confiscated property ; as when, for instance, an information was laid against a man for having in his possession the goods of a con­demned criminal, or which were liable to be seized


in execution on behalf of the state ; or when the goods of a convict having been confiscated, a claim was made by a mortgagee, or other creditor having a lien thereupon, to have his debt satisfied out of the proceeds. Such a claim was called eveirio-KriMJ.a, and to prosecute it eveTrio'K'fityao'dcu. (Harpoc. and Suidas, s. v.) On this subject the reader is referred tQ the speeches of Lysias de PuH. Pecun., de Nic. Fratr. Pecun., de Aristoph. Pectin., and more espe­ cially pp. 149, 151, 154, ed. Steph. The first ap­ pointment of these judicial ffvvSiKot took place after the expulsion of the thirty tyrants ; and one of their duties appears to have been to receive informations from the (j>v\apxoi against those persons who had served in the cavalry during the interregnum, and who by a special decree of the people were ordered to restore to the treasury all the pay v,hich they had received for that service. (Lysias, pro Man- tith. 146, ed. Steph.) See synegorus ; Harpoc. s. v. ~2,vv§iKoi: Meier, Ait. Proc. p. 110; Scho­ mann, de Comit. p. 316. [C. R. K.]

SYNEDRI (avv&poi), a name given to the members of any council, or any body of men who sat together to consult or deliberate. The congress of Greeks at Salamis is called ffvveSptov. (Herod, viii. 75, 79.) Frequent reference is made to the general assembly of the Greeks, rb Koivbv r&v 'EAA.?jj>wz/ ffvv&piov, at Corinth, Thermopylae, or elsewhere. (Aesch. c. Ctesiph. 62, ed. Steph. ; Demosth. ITepl t&v irp}>s JAAe|a^5po^, 215.) When the new alliance of the Athenians was formed after B. c. 377, upon fairer and more equitable principles than the former, the several states who were in­cluded therein were expressly declared to be inde­pendent, and a congress was held at Athens, to which each of the allied states sent representatives. The congress was called crvv&piov, and the depu­ties crvveSpoi, and the sums furnished by the allies ffwra^is, in order to avoid the old and hateful name of <f)6pos or tribute. (Harpocrat.s. v.; Plut.SV)/. 15.) Many allusions to this new league are made by the orators, especially Isocrates, who strongly urges his countrymen to adhere to the principle on which the league was formed, and renounce all attempt to re-establish their old supremacy. (De Pace, 165, ed. Steph.) Perhaps the orvvedpot men­tioned in the oath of the Aitcaffral are the Athenian members of this congress. (Schomann, Ait. Proc. 130.) For further information on the subject of this confederacy, see Schomann, Ant.Jur.Publ. Gr. p. 434 ; Bdckh, Pull. Econ. of Athens, p. 418, 2d ed. ; Thirl wall, Hist, of Greece, vol. v. pp. 42,203.

The name of crvv&piov was given at Athens to any magisterial or official body, as to the court of Areiopagus (Aesch. c. Timarch. 13 ; Dinarch. c. Demosth. 91, ed. Steph.) ; or to the place where they transacted business, their board or council- room. (Isocrat. Hepl 'AvTi^6crecas, 318, ed. Steph.; Demosth. c. Theocr. 1324.) [C. R. K.]

SYNEGORICON (ffvvrryopiKdv)-. [syne­gorus.]

SYNEGORUS (o-vv^yopos), may be trans­lated an advocate or counsel, though such transla­tion will convey to the English reader a more comprehensive meaning than the Greek word strictly bears.

According to the ancient practice of the Athenian law, parties to an action were obliged to conduct their own causes without assistance : but on the increase of litigation the sciences of law and rheto­ric began to unfold themselves ; and men, who had

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