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word as dicere would have been employed, more especially as it is certain that in the most ancient times those who voted by word of mouth did not go up one by one to the officer who received the votes, but remained in their places, and were asked for their votes by the Rogatores, who thence de­rived their name. Besides which the word svffra-gium can scarcely signify the same as sententia or vox. The etymology is uncertain, for the opinions of those who connect it with typdfcfrOat or fragor do not deserve notice. Wunder thinks that it may possibly be allied with suffrage, and signified originally an ankle-bone or knuckle-bone. On the passing of the Leges Tabellariae the voting with stones or pebbles went out of use. For further particulars with respect to the voting in the comitia, see comitia, p. 336 ; diribitores ; situla ; tabella ; tabellariae leges.

Those who had the Jus Suftragii or the right of voting in the comitia, as well as the capacity of enjoying magistracies, were citizens optima jure. [CiviTAS, p. 291, b.]

SUGGESTUS means in general any elevated place made of materials heaped up (sub and gero}^ and is specially applied : 1. To the stage or pulpit from which the orators addressed the people in the comitia. [rostra.] 2. To the elevation from which a general addressed the soldiers. (Tacit. Hist. i. 35.) 3. To the elevated seat from which the emperor beheld the public games (Suet. Jul. 76 ; Plin. Paneg. 51), also called culiculiim. [Cu-


SUGGRUNDARIUM. [funus, p. 559,b.] SUI HERE'DES. [heres, p. 598, b.] SUMTUA'RIAE LEGES, the name of various laws passed to prevent inordinate expense (sumtits) in banquets, dress, £c. (Gellius, ii. 24, xx. 1.) In the states of antiquity it was considered the duty of government to put a check upon extra­vagance in the private expenses of persons, and among the Romans in particular we find traces of this in the laws attributed to the kings and in the Twelve Tables. The censors, to whom was entrusted the disciplina or euro, morum, punished by the nota censoria all persons guilty of what was then regarded as a luxurious mode of living: a great many instances of this kind are recorded. [censor, p. 264, a.] But as the love of luxury greatly increased with the foreign conquests of the republic and the growing wealth of the nations, various Leges Sumtuariae were passed at different times with the object of restraining it. These however, as may be supposed, rarely accomplished their object, and in the latter times of the republic they were virtually repealed. The following is a list of the most important of them arranged in chronological order.

oppia, proposed by the tribune C. Oppius in the consulship of Q. Fabius and Ti. Sempronius in the middle of the second Punic war b. c. 213, enacted that no woman should have above half an ounce of gold, nor wear a dress of different colours, nor ride in a carriage in the city or in any town, or within a mile of it, unless on account of public sacrifices. This law was repealed twenty years afterwards (Liv. xxxiv. 1, 8; Val. Max. ix. 1. §3), whence we frequently find the Lex Orchia mentioned as the first Lex Sumtuaria. Tacitus (Ann. iii. 33, 34) speaks of Oppiae Leges.

orchia, proposed by the tribune C. Orchius in the third year after the censorship of Cato b. c. 181,


limited the number of guests to be present at en­tertainments. When attempts were afterwards made to repeal this law, Cato offered the strongest opposition, and delivered a speech in defence of"the law, which is referred to by the grammarians. (Macrob. Sat. ii. 13 ; Festus, s. vv. Obsonitavere, Pcrcunctatum ; Schol. Bob. in Cic. pro Scst. p. 310, ed. Orelli ; Meyer, Orat. Roman. Fragm. p. 91, &c., 2d ed.).

fannta, proposed by the consul C. Fannius b. c. 161, limited the sums which were to be spent on entertainments, and enacted that not more than 100 asses should be spent on certain festivals named in the lex, whence it is called Centussis by Lucilius, that on ten other days in each month not more than 30 asses, and that on all other days not more than 10 asses should be expended : also that no other fowl but one hen should be served up, and that not fattened for the purpose. (Gell. ii. 24 ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 13 ; Plin. H. N. x. 50. s. 71.)

didia, passed b. c. 143, extended the Lex Fan-niato the whole of Italy, and enacted that not only those who gave entertainments which exceeded in expense what the law had prescribed, but also all who were present at such entertainments, should be liable to the penalties of the law. We are not however told in what these consisted. (Macrob. SatAi. 13.)

licinia agreed in its chief provisions with the Lex Fannia, and was brought forward, we are told, that there might be the authority of a new law upon the subject, inasmuch as the Lex Fannia was beginning to be neglected. It allowed 200 asses to be spent on entertainments upon marriage days and on other days the same as the Lex Fannia: also, that on ordinary days 'there should not be served up more than three pounds of fresh and one pound of salt meat. (Gell. Macrob. //. cc.) Gellius (/. c.} states, that this law was brought forward by P. Licinius Crassus, but we do not know at what time, probably however in his praetorship b.c. 103. Gellius relates elsewhere (xv. 8) that a Latin orator of the name of Favorinus spoke in support of this law. (See Diet, of Biog. art. Favorinus.')

cornelia, a law of the dictator Sulla b. c. 81, was enacted on account of the neglect of the Fan-nian and Licinian Laws. Like these it regulated the expenses of entertainments. (Gell. ii. 24 ; Macrob. I. c.) Extravagance in funerals, which had been forbidden even in the Twelve Tables (Cic. de Leg. ii. 23—25), was also restrained by a law of Sulla. (Pint. Sull. 35.) It was probably the same law which determined how much might be spent upon monuments. (Cic. ad Att. xii. 35, 36.)

aemilia, proposed by the consul Aemilius Le-pidus b. c. 78, did not limit the expenses of enter­tainments, but the kind and quantity of food that was to be used. (Gell. Macrob. II. cc.) Pliny (H. N. viii. 57. s. 82) and Aurelius Victor (de Vir. III. 72) ascribe this law to the consulship of M. Aemi­lius Scaurus b.c. 115. It is not impossible that there may have been two Aemilian Leges on the subject.

antia, of uncertain date, proposed by Antius Restio, besides limiting the expenses of entertain­ments, enacted that no actual magistrate, or magis­trate elect, should dine abroad anywhere except at the houses of certain persons. This law however was little observed ; and we are told that Antius never dined out afterwards, that he might not see his own law violated. (Gell. Macrob. //. cc.)

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