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5. We find in an inscription the words Die- to ed es ap. strator, which is generally under stood to commemorate the labours of some individual in paving the Appian Way, and mention is made of stratores of this description in another inscrip tion found at Mayence. (Orell. n. 1450 ; compare Fuchs, Gesckichte von Mainz.} [W. R.J
STRENA, a present given on a festive day and for the sake of good omen (Festus, s. v.), whence a good omen is called by Plautus bona strena. (Stick. v. 2. 24.) Jt was however chiefly applied to a new year's gift, to a present made on the Calends of January. In accordance with a Senatusconsultum new year's gifts had to be presented to Augustus in the Capitol, even when he was absent. (Suet. Aug. 57 ; comp. Dion Cass. liv. 35,) The person who received such presents was accustomed to make others in return (strenarum commerciuni) ; but Tiberius, who did not like the custom on account of the trouble it gave him and also of the expense in making presents in return, frequently left Rome at the beginning of January, that he might be out of the way (Dion Cass. Ivii. 8), and also strictly forbade any such presents to be offered him after the first of January, as he used to be
annoyed by them during the whole of the month. (Suet. Tib. 34 ; Dion Cass. Ivii. 17.) The custom, so far as the emperor was concerned, thus seems to have fallen almost entirely into disuse during the reign of Tiberius. It was revived again by Caligula (Suet. Col. 42 ; Dion Cass. lix. 24), but abolished by Claudius (Dion Cass. Ix. 6) ; it must, however, have been restored afterwards, as we find it mentioned as late as the reigns of Theodosius and Arcadius. (Auson. Ep. xviii. 4 ; Symmach. Ep. x. 23.)
STRIGA, [castra, p. 254.]
STRIGIL. [balneae, pp. 185, a, 192, a.]
STROPHIUM (rearm, rcuvftiov, cwnJSeor/Aos) was a girdle or belt worn by women round the breast and over the inner tunic or chemise. (Non. xiv. 8 ; tercti strophio luctcmtes vincta papittas^ Catull. Ixiv. 65.) It appears from an epigram of Martial (xiv. 66) to have been usually made of leather. (Becker, Gallus., vol. i, p. 321.)
STRUCTOR. [coena, p, 307, b.]
SUBCENTURIO. [exercitus, p. 506, a.]
SUBLIGACULUM or SUCCINCTG'RIUM (Bictfoua, Trepi^wjua), drawers. (Joseph, Ant. iii. 7. § 1.) This article of dress, or a bandage wound about the loins so as to answer the same purpose, was worn by athletes at the public games of Greece in the earliest ages [athletae] : but the use of it was soon discontinued, and they went entirely naked. (Schoi. in Horn. II. xxiii. 683 ; Isid. Orig. xviii. 17.) The Romans, on the contrary, and all other nations except the Greeks, always adhered to the use of it in their gymnastic exercises. (Thucyd. i. 6 ; Schol. in loc. ; Clem. Alex. Paedag. iii. 9 ; Isid. Orig. xix. 22.) It was also worn by actors on. the stage (Cic. de Off. i. 35), by those who were employed in treading grapes [ToRCU-lar] (Geopon. vi. 11), and by the Roman popa at the sacrifices, and it then received the denomination limits (Virg. Aen. xii. 120 ; Servius,
in loc.\ which name was also applied to it as worn by Roman slaves. (Gell. xii. 3.) The circumstance of the slaves in India wearing this as their only covering (Strabo, xv. 1. § 73. p. 156, ed. Sieb.) is agreeable to the practice of modern slavery in the West Indies and other tropical countries. [J. Y.]
SUBSCRIPTIO CENSORIA. [censor, p. 263, b.]
SUBSIGNANI. [exercitus, p. 502, a.]
SUBSTITUTIO. [heres, p. 599, a.]
SUCCESSIO. This word is used to denote a right which remains unchanged as such, but is changed with reference to its subject. The change is of such a nature that the right when viewed as attached to a new person is founded on a preceding right, is derived from it and depends upon it. The right must accordingly begin to be attached to the new person at the moment when it ceases to be attached to the person who previously had it; and it cannot tc a better righ't than it was to the person from whom it was derived (Dig. 50. tit. 17. s. 175. § 1). Thus in the case of the transfer of ownership by tradition, the new ownership begins when the old ownership ceases, and it only arises in case the former possessor of the thing had the ownership, that is, prior ownership is a necessary condition of subsequent ownership. This kind of change in ownership is called Successio. It follows from the definition of it that Usucapion is not included in it ; for Usucapion is an original acquisition. The successio of a heres is included, for though there might be a considerable interval between the death and the aditio hereditatis, yet when the hereditas was once taken possession of, the aet of aditio had by a legal fiction relation to the time of the death. Thus whereas we generally view persons who possess rights as the permanent substance and the rights as accidents, in the case of Succession the right is the permanent substance, which persists in a series of persons.
The notion of Succession applies mainly though not exclusively to property. With respect to the law that relates to Familia, it applies so far as the parts of the Familia partake of the nature of property, such as the power of a master over his slave, and the case of Patronatus and Mancipii causa. Thus the patria potestas and the condition of a wife in manu may be objects of succession. It applies also to the ease of adoption.
Successio is divided into Singular Succession and Univefsal Succession. These terms conveniently express the notion, but they are not Roman terms. The Roman terms were as follows : in universum jus, in earn, duntaxat rem succedere (Dig. 21. tit. 3. s. 3) ; per universitatem? in rem succedere (Gains, ii. 97 ; Dig. 43. tit. 3. s. 1) ; in omne jus mortui, in singularum rerum dominium succedere (Dig. 29. tit. 2. s, 37) j in universa boni'i, in rei tantum dominium succedere. (Dig, 39, tit, 2. s.24.)
It is Singular succession when a single thing as an object of ownership is transferred, or several things together, when they are transferred as individual things, and not as having any relation to one another in consequence of this accidental common mode of transfer. The person into whose place another comes by Singular succession, id
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