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On this page: Stipulatio – Stiva – Stoa – Stoicheion – Stola – Stragulum – Strategus

STRATEGUS.

STIPULATIO, STIPULA'TOR. [obliga-tiones, pp. 817, b, 818, a.]

STIVA. [aratrum.j

STOA. [porticus.]

STOICHEION. [horologium.]

STOLA, was a female dress worn over the tunic ; it came as low as the ankles or feet (ad talos stola demissa, Hor. Sat. i. 2. .99), and was fastened round the body by a girdle, leaving above the breast broad folds (rugosiorem stola frontem, Mart, iii. 93. 4). The tunic did not reach much below the knee, but the essential distinction between the tunic and stola seems to have been, that the latter always had an instita or flounce sewed to the bottom and reaching to the instep. (Hor. Sat. i. 2. 29 ; Ovid. Ar. Amat. i. 32.) Over the Stola the Palla or Pallium was worn [pallium], as we see in the cut annexed. (Mus. Borbon. iii. tav. 37.)

The stola seems to have been usually fastened over the shoulder by a fibula or clasp, and gene­rally had sleeves, but not always.

The Stola was the characteristic dress of the Roman matrons as the toga was of the Roman men. (Cic. Phil. ii. 18.) Hence the meretrices were not allowed to wear it, but only a dark-coloured toga (Tibull. iv. 10. 3; Mart. i. 36. 8) ; and accordingly Horace (Sat. i. 2. 63) speaks of the matrona in contradistinction to the togata.. For the same reason women, who had been divorced from their husbands on account of adultery, were not allowed to wear the Stola, but only the toga (Schol. ad Hor. I. c.) : to which Martial alludes, (ii. 39, vi. 64. 4). See Becker, Gallus, vol. i. p. 321,&c.

STRAGULUM. [tapes.]

STRATEGUS (ffrparriiyds). The office and title of Strategus, or General, seem to have been more especially peculiar to the democratic states of ancient Greece: we read of them, for instance, at Athens, Tarentum, Syracuse, Afgos, and Thurii ; and when the tyrants of the Ionian cities in Asia Minor were deposed by Aristagoras, he established Strategi in their room, to act as chief magistrates. (Herod, v. 38.)

The Strategi at Athens were instituted after the remodelling of the constitution by Cleisthenes, to discharge the duties which had in former times been performed either by the king or the Archon Polemarchus. They were ten in number, one for each of the ten tribes, and chosen by the suffrages (Xetporovia) of the people. (Pollux, viii. 87.) Before entering on their duties, they were required

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STRATEGUS.

to submit to a cJo/a/iacrm, or examination of their character (Lysias, c. Alcib. 144); and no one was eligible to the office unless he had legitimate chil­dren, and was possessed of landed property in At­tica. (Dinarch. c. Demostli. 99.) They were, as their name denotes, entrusted with the command on military expeditions, with the superintendence of all warlike preparations, and with the regulation of all matters in any way connected with the war department of the state. They levied and enlisted the soldiers (/careAc^a^), either personally or with the assistance of the Taxiarchs. (Lysias, c. Alcib. 140, pro Milit. 114.) They were entrusted with the collection and management of the ela-tyopai, or property taxes raised for the purposes of war ; and also presided over, or officiated as Eiffaywye'is in the courts of justice in which any disputes con­nected with this subject or the trierarchy were de­cided. (Wolf, ad Lept. p. 94 ; Dem. c. Lacr. 940. 16.) They also nominated from year to year per­sons to serve as trierarchs (Dem. c. Boeot. i. 997; Xenoph. de Rep. AtJien. 3), and took cognizance of the cases of antidosis arising out of the trie­rarchy and property taxes (eiroiovv ras a,VTi86(reis, c.Phaenip. 1040.) They also presided at courts-martial and at the trials in cases of accusation for non-performance of military and naval duties. [astrateias and anaumachiou ghaphae.] They likewise had the power of convening extra­ordinary assemblies of the people in cases of emer­gency [ecclesia, pp. 440, b, 441, a], and from the instance of Pericles it would always seem that in critical times they had the power of preventing an assembly being hoi den. (Thucyd. ii. 22.) But their most important trust was the command in war, and it depended upon circumstances to how many of the number it was given. At Marathon all the ten were present, and the chief command came to each of them in turn. The Archon Pole­marchus also was there associated with them, and according to the ancient custom, his vote in a council of war was equal to that of any of the generals. (Herod, vi. 109.) In the expedition against Samos, also, all the ten generals were en­gaged (Thucyd. i. 116), the poet Sophocles being one of the number (Mtiller, Literature of Ancient Greece,, p. 338) ; but it was obvious that in most cases it would be neither convenient nor useful to send out the whole number on the same under­taking, and during the course' of a protracted war it would be necessary for some of them to be left at home, in charge of the war department there. Accordingly, in the best times of Athens, three only were for the most part sent out ; one of these (rpiros avr6s) was considered as the commander-in-chief, but his colleagues had an equal voice in a council of war. Sometimes a strategus, as Pericles, was vested with extraordinary powers (Thucyd. ii. 65) : in like manner, the three ge­nerals engaged in the Sicilian expedition, Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamarchus, were made avroKpd-Topes, or supreme and independent in all matters connected with it. (Thucyd. vi. 8, 26.) So also was Aristides in his command at Plataeae. But even in ordinary cases the Athenian generals were not fettered in the conduct of a campaign by an}'-council of war, or other controlling authority, 'as the Spartan kings sometimes were ; still they were responsible for it, and in the time of Demosthenes (Philip, i. 53) exposed on the termination of their command to capital indictment at the caprice oi

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