The Ancient Library

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earth moistened with tears. (Hesio'd. Theogon. 571, &c.; Stob. Serm. 1.) The name plastic art (97 TrAoorTtKTj), by which the ancients sometimes designate the art of statuary, properly signifies to form or shape a thing of clay. But notwithstand­ing the great facility of making figures of clay, they are not often mentioned in the early ages of Greece, while in Italy the Dii fidiles (jrriXivoi freoi) were very common from the earliest times. Clay figures, however, never fell into disuse en­tirely, and in later times we find not only statues of clay, but the pediments in small or rural temples frequently contained the most beautiful reliefs in cluy, which were copies of the marble reliefs of larger temples. When Pliny (PLN. xxxv. 43) speaks of Rhoecus and Theodorus of Samos as the inventors of the plastice, he seems to labour under a mistake and to confound the art of working in clay with that of casting in metal, as in later times the latter of these two arts was commonly called plastice. Some ancient figures of clay are still preserved.

The second material was ivood, and figures made of wood were called, from |eo>, " polish " or " carve." Various kinds of wood were used in statuary ; we find mention of oak, cedar, cypress, sycamore, pine, fig, box, and ebony. It was chiefly used for making images of the gods, and probably more on account of the facility of working in it, than for any other reason. It should, however, be remarked, that particular kinds of wood were used to make the images of particular deities: thus the statues of Dionysus, the god of figs, were made of fig-wood. The use of wood for statues of the gods continued to the latest times ; but statues of men, as, for example, some of the victors in the public games, were likewise made of wood at a time when the Greeks were sufficiently acquainted with the art of working in stone and metal.

Stone was little used in statuary during the early ages of Greece, though it was not altogether unknown, as we may infer from the relief on the Lion-gate of Mycenae. In Italy, where the soft peperino afforded an easy material for working, stone appears to have been used at an earlier period and more commonly than in Greece. But in the historical times the Greeks used all the principal varieties of marble for their statues ; the most ce­lebrated kinds of which were the marbles of Paros and of Mount Pentelicus, both of which were of a white colour. Different kinds of marble and of different colours were sometimes used in one and the same statue, in which case the work is called Polylithic statuary.

Bronze (x&xkos, aes}, silver, and gold were used profusely in the state of society described in the Homeric poems, which is a sufficient proof that works of art in these metals were not altogether unknown in those times. At that period, however, and long after, the works executed in metal were made by means of the hammer, and the different pieces were joined together by pins, rivets, cramps, or other mechanical fastenings, and, as the art advanced, by a kind of glue, cement, or solder. Iron came into use much later, and the art of casting both bronze and iron is ascribed to Rhoecus and to Theodorus of Samos. (Paus. x. 38, § 3.) [aes ; metallum.]

Ivory came into use at a later period than any of the before-mentioned materials, and then was highly valued both for its beauty and rarity. In



its application to statuary, ivory was generally combined with gold, and was used for the parts re­presenting the flesh. Winckelmann has calculated that about one hundred statues of this kind are mentioned by the ancients.

The history of ancient art, and of statuary in particular, may be divided into five periods.

I. First Period, from Hie earliest times till about Ol. 50, or 580 b. c.

The real history of the arts is preceded by a period of a purely mythical character, which tra­dition has peopled with divine artists and most extraordinary productions. Three kinds of artists, however, may be distinguished in this mythical period : the first consists of gods and daemons, such as Athena, Hephaestus, the Phrygian or Dardanian Dactyli, and the Cabiri. The second contains whole tribes of men distinguished from others by the mysterious possession of superior skill in the practice of the arts, such as the Telchines and the Lycian Cyclopes. The third consists of individuals who are indeed described as human beings, but yet are nothing more than personifications of particular branches of art, or the representatives of families of artists. Of the latter the most celebrated is Daedalus, whose name indicates nothing but a smith, or an artist in general, and who is himself the mythical ancestor of a numerous family of artists (Daedatids), which can be traced from the time of Homer to that of Plato, for even Socrates is said to have been a descendant of this family. It is, however, very probable that, in Homer, Daedalus is merely an epithet of the god Hephaes­tus. (See Did. of Biog. s. v.) He was believed to be an Athenian, but Crete also claimed the honour of being his native country. The stories respecting him are more like allegorical accounts of the progress of the arts than anything else. He was principally renowned in antiquity for his |oapa, and several parts of Greece, as Boeotia, Attica, Crete, and even Libya in later times, were believed to possess specimens of his workmanship* (Paus. vii. 5, ix. 40. § 2, i. 18. § 5 ; Scylax, p. 53, ed. Huds.) Numerous inventions also, especially of instruments used in carving wood, are ascribed to him. He is said to have made his statues walking, which appears to mean that before his time human figures were represented with their legs close to­gether, and that in his statues the legs were sepa­rated, which was at once a great step forward, as it imparted greater life and activity to a figure. Smilis (from o>u'A?7, a carving-knife) exercised his art in Samos, Aegina, and other places, and some remarkable works were attributed to him. (Miiller, Aeginet. p. 97.) Endoeus of Athens is called a disciple of Daedalus. Various works were attri­buted to him by the ancients. One among them was a colossal %6avov of Athena Polias in a temple at Erythrae in Ionia. She was represented sitting upon a &povos, holding a spindle in her hand, and with a iro\os on her head. Pausanias (vii. 5. § 4) saw this tycivov himself. (See Diet, of Biog. s. vv. Daedalus, Endoeus, Smilis.^)

According to the popular traditions of Greece, there was no period in which the gods were not represented in some form or other, and there is no doubt that for a long time there existed no other statues in Greece, than those of the gods ; a statue of a man appears for a long time to have been a thing unheard of in Greece. The earliest repre-

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